April 6 2014, Epistle Lection Rom 8:6-11

April 6 2014, Epistle Lection

Rom 8:6-11

Note—again the gospel lection was too long for a translation this week, so I’ll only provide this one.

Ro 8:6 τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα[A] τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος[B] ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· For the mind of the flesh [is] death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace.
Ro 8:7 διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα[C] εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ[D] τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται[E], οὐδὲ[F] γὰρ δύναται· Because the mind of the flesh is enmity toward God; it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able [to do so].
Ro 8:8 οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.[G] And those in [the] flesh are not able to please God.
Ro 8:9 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ[H] πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ[I] οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ. But y’all are not in [the] flesh, but in [the] Spirit, if indeed [the] Spirit of God dwells in y’all.  If anyone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, this one is not His [i.e. Christ’s].
Ro 8:10 εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν[J], τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην. But if Christ [is] in y’all;, on the one hand, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life because of righteousness.
Ro 8:11 εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν[K] ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ[L] τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα ἐν ὑμῖν. And if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from [the] dead dwells in y’all, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make alive y’all’s mortal bodies because of his spirit dwelling in y’all.

[A] Or “way of thinking,” “mindset.”

[B] I’ve capitalized “Spirit” in the translation, since the earlier verses seem clearly to be referring to the Holy Spirit.

[C] Or “hostility”

[D] It’s a little surprising to see Paul use “law” here without qualification, since Paul doesn’t regard all of the written law as obligatory for Gentiles.  One might have expected “will” or “purpose” or some such word.  Or Paul may have the thought of Rom 5:13 in mind here.

[E] Present tense denotes continuous, repeated, or habitual action.

[F] Or “For it is not even able [to do so].”

[G] The logical consequence of the previous verse.

[H] Or “since.”

[I] Note the ways in which Paul uses “Spirit of God” and “Spirit of Christ” almost interchangeably here.

[J] Note the way in which the indwelling of the Spirit (in the previous verse) is made equivalent to the indwelling of Christ himself.  Yet in v. 11, if is the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead who indwells y’all.  Lots of Trinitarian material here!

[K] Could also be “among y’all,” (also elsewhere where the Greek text reads ἐν ὑμῖν), though the flow of the text as a whole suggests that individuals are at least to some extent in view—note the singulars in verses 9b and 10b of this text.

[L] Other manuscripts have the object of this preposition in the genitive, rather than the accusative, making the meaning of this preposition “through” rather than “because of” as I have rendered in the translation of the accusative object found in the SBL Geek text.

March 30 2014 Epistle Lection Ephesians 5:8-13; Greek text, Translation, and Notes

(The gospel lection is too long for me to get to this week!)

Eph 5:8 ἦτε γάρ ποτε σκότος, νῦν δὲ φῶς ἐν κυρίῳ· ὡς τέκνα[A] φωτὸς περιπατεῖτε[B], For once you were darkness, but now [you are] light in [the] Lord.  Keep walking as children of light.
Eph 5:9 ὁ γὰρ καρπὸς[C] τοῦ φωτὸς ἐν πάσῃ ἀγαθωσύνῃ καὶ δικαιοσύνῃ[D] καὶ ἀληθείᾳ, For the fruit of the light [is seen] in all goodness and righteousness and truth,
Eph 5:10 δοκιμάζοντες[E] τί ἐστιν εὐάρεστον τῷ κυρίῳ· testing out what is pleasing to the Lord.
Eph 5:11 καὶ μὴ συγκοινωνεῖτε τοῖς ἔργοις τοῖς ἀκάρποις τοῦ σκότους, μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ ἐλέγχετε[F], And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness; instead, expose [them.]
Eph 5:12 τὰ γὰρ κρυφῇ γινόμενα[G] ὑπ’ αὐτῶν αἰσχρόν[H] ἐστιν[I] καὶ λέγειν· For the things being done in secret by them are disgraceful even to speak [about.]
Eph 5:13 τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐλεγχόμενα[J] ὑπὸ τοῦ φωτὸς φανεροῦται[K], But all things are revealed when they are exposed by the light.
Eph 5:14 πᾶν γὰρ τὸ φανερούμενον φῶς ἐστιν.[L] διὸ λέγει·[M]  Ἔγειρε, ὁ καθεύδων, καὶ ἀνάστα ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ ἐπιφαύσει σοι ὁ Χριστός. For everything revealed is light.  Therefore it says, “Get up, sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ will shine on you.”

[A] The previous phrase makes it clear that the reader is only light in the Lord; hence the readers are in this sense “children of light.”

[B] I translated the present tense imperative emphasizing continuous action.

[C] An interesting image, but here it seems clearly to mean “what light produces.”

[D] Could be translated either “righteousness” or “justice.”

[E] An interesting verb, implying critical examination, and perhaps even some trial-and-error sorts of investigation.

[F] Either “expose” or “refute.”

[G] I translated “being done” because of the ὑπ’ αὐτῶν “by them” which immediately follows, but literally this is “happening.”

[H] Grammatically, this should be plural to match τὰ γὰρ κρυφῇ γινόμενα.  I’m not entirely sure why this is singular here—perhaps the sense is adverbial.

[I] Neuter plural subjects take singular verbs in Greek.

[J] Exposed” or “refuted.”

[K] “Revealed,” not in the sense of revelation, but of being made apparent  Cf. similar usages in 1 Cor 4:5, 2 Cor 4:5.

[L] All sorts of interesting philosophical questions here!

[M] The origin of this citation is unclear.  Most commentators treat it as a citation of an early Christian hymn, or perhaps from a baptismal liturgy.  In all these cases, the original text is unavailable to us.

March 23 2014 Epistle Lection Romans 5:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

March 23 2014 Epistle Lection

Romans 5:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

Note:  The gospel lection for this week runs a bit long (37 verses), so I’m going to pass on that one for this week.  But here’s the Romans reading.

Ro 5:1 Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως εἰρήνην ἔχομεν[A] πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Therefore, having been justified from faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Ro 5:2 δι’ οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν[B] τῇ πίστει[C] εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν[D], καὶ καυχώμεθα[E] ἐπ’[F] ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ· through whom we also have obtained access by faith to this grace in which we stand, and we boast on [the] hope of the glory of God.
Ro 5:3 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμεθα[G] ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσιν, εἰδότες ὅτι ἡ θλῖψις ὑπομονὴν[H] κατεργάζεται, And not only [this], but we also boast in distresses, knowing that distress brings about endurance,
Ro 5:4 ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν[I], ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα. and endurance [brings about] character, and character [brings about] hope.
Ro 5:5 ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει· ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ[J] ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν. And hope does not put [us] to shame, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through [the] Holy Spirit given to us.
Ro 5:6 Ἔτι[K] γὰρ Χριστὸς ὄντων ἡμῶν ἀσθενῶν ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀπέθανεν. For while we were still weak, Christ, at the right time, still died on behalf of the ungodly.
Ro 5:7 μόλις γὰρ ὑπὲρ δικαίου τις ἀποθανεῖται· ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τάχα τις καὶ τολμᾷ ἀποθανεῖν· For scarcely on behalf of a righteous one will someone die; though possibly on behalf of the good [person] one even dares to die,
Ro 5:8 συνίστησιν δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀγάπην εἰς[L] ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ὅτι[M] ἔτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὄντων ἡμῶν Χριστὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀπέθανεν. but God demonstrates his own love for us, because while we were still sinners, Christ died on our behalf.
Ro 5:9 πολλῷ οὖν μᾶλλον δικαιωθέντες νῦν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ σωθησόμεθα δι’ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς. So then by how much more, having now been justified in his blood, will we be saved through him from wrath?
Ro 5:10 εἰ γὰρ ἐχθροὶ ὄντες κατηλλάγημεν[N] τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον καταλλαγέντες σωθησόμεθα ἐν[O] τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ· For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his son, by how much more, having been reconciled, will we be saved in his life?
Ro 5:11 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμενοι[P] ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δι’ οὗ νῦν τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν. And not only [this], but [we are] also boasting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we now [have] received the reconciliation.

[A] Note the textual variants between “let us have” (hortatory subjunctive) and the indicative “we have.”  Although the subjunctive “let us have” has better manuscript attestation, most interpreters think that the indicative “we have” is more likely the original intended reading, since it’s hard to imagine what sort of activity Paul is envisioning beyond what Christ has already accomplished, which might lead to peace with God.

[B] Literally “we are in the present and enduring state of having access.”

[C] Some manuscript uncertainty about whether “by faith” is part of the original.

[D] The perfect of this verb (the form we see here) is equivalent in meaning to the intransitive present tense.

[E] In terms of form this could be either indicative or subjunctive (alpha-contract verb), and this may be part of the reason for the confusion over ἔχομεν/ἔχωμεν above in v. 1 (see note A above), but the indicative seems much more likely in this context.

[F] Perhaps “on the basis of [our] hope . . .”

[G] Same ambiguity between indicative and subjunctive as the previous verse.  Same arguments apply.

[H] Literally “remaining under”

[I] Note BDAG 2 definition:  the experience of going through a test with special ref. to the result, standing a test, character

[J] Could be either objective genitive (our love for God) or subjective genitive (God’s love for us).

[K] Significant textual variants here—pretty tough to sort it all out.

[L] Or “into us.”

[M] Or “in that.”

[N] An unusual aorist passive where the –θη- marker doesn’t fully appear.

[O] There is a debate whether this should be interpreted locatively (“in his life”) or instrumentally (“by his life”).  Either is grammatically possible. (Same issue in the previous verse ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ as well.)

[P] It’s striking how frequently boasting recurs throughout this text.

Gospel Lection March 16, 2014; John 3:1-17, Comments on the Greek Text

Gospel Lection March 16, 2014

John 3:1-17, Comments on the Greek Text

Jn 3:1 Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων[A]· There was a man from the Pharisees—Nicodemus [was] his name—a ruler of the Jews.
Jn 3:2 οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς[B] καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ῥαββί, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ. This one came to him [during the] night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you have come from God [as] a teacher, for no one is able to do these signs that you are doing, unless God is with him.”
Jn 3:3 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν[C], οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born from above/again, he [or she] is not able to see the kingdom of God.”
Jn 3:4 λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος· Πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὤν; μὴ[D] δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι; Nicodemus says to him, “How can someone be born while being old?  He [or she] is not able to enter into the womb of his [or her] mother a second time and to be born, is he [or she]?”
Jn 3:5 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος[E] καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν[F] εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. Jesus answered, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born from water and Spirit, he [or she] is not able to enter into the kingdom of God.
Jn 3:6 τὸ γεγεννημένον[G] ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμά ἐστιν. What has been born from the flesh is flesh, and what has been born from the Spirit is spirit.
Jn 3:7 μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι Δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again/from above.’
Jn 3:8 τὸ πνεῦμα[H] ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ’ οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει· οὕτως[I] ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος. The wind/Spirit blows where it wills, and you hear its sound, but you do not know from where it comes and where it goes.  Thus is each who is one born from the Spirit.”
Jn 3:9 ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι;[J] Nicodemus answered and said to him, “How can these things be?”
Jn 3:10 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Σὺ εἶ ὁ[K] διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις; Jesus answered and said to him, “Are you the teacher of Israel, and you do not know these things?
Jn 3:11 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἴδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε.[L] Truly, truly I say to you, “What we know, we speak, and what we have seen, we bear witness [to], and y’all do not receive our testimony.
Jn 3:12 εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐὰν εἴπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε; If I told y’all earthly things and y’all do not believe, how will y’all believe if I tell you heavenly things?
Jn 3:13 καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. And no one has ascended into heaven except the one who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.
Jn 3:14 καὶ καθὼς Μωϋσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οὕτως ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, And just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
Jn 3:15 ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐν αὐτῷ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον[M]. so that everyone who believes in him might have eternal life.
Jn 3:16 Οὕτως[N] γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ[O] ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλὰ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον. For God so loved the world that he gave the only son, so that everyone who believes in him might not be destroyed, but might have eternal life.
Jn 3:17 οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἵνα κρίνῃ[P] τὸν κόσμον, ἀλλ’ ἵνα σωθῇ[Q] ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ. For God did not send the son into the world in order that he might judge the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.

[A] There is a big debate in Johannine scholarship over whether this should be translated “Jews” or “Judeans.”

[B] Genitive case with expressions of time denotes time-within-which.

[C] this word can mean either “from above” or “again.”  The drama of the scene arises from the fact that Jesus means it in both ways, but Nicodemus only understands it as “again,” missing the notion of birth from God.

[D] The expected answer to this question, of course, is “no,” as is always the case with questions using the negative μη.

[E] There is some debate about whether this is a reference to the water of birth or of baptism.  I am inclined to think it’s the latter, and the two form a hendiadys—two ways of speaking about the same thing.

[F] Note the shift from “seeing” in verse 3 to “entering” here.

[G] Note the neuter tenses!  Interestingly, this is not referring to persons.

[H] Note the double meaning that is hard to translate into English.

[I] “Thus” in the sense of “This is the way it is with”

[J] Nicodemus’ last words in this chapter.

[K] Hard to know whether this article should be emphasized or not—the teacher of Israel.

[L] Note the shift to the plural tenses throughout this verse.

[M] The adjective doesn’t focus primarily on “eternal” in the sense of endless, but rather as a life characteristic of the age to come.

[N] Two ways to render this:  (1)  God loved the world in this way, namely that he gave . . . “  (2) God loved the world to such an extent that he gave . . .”  Either is grammatically possible.

[O] Not “only-begotten” but “only” or “unique.”

[P] The verb can have either a neutral connotation “judge” or a negative one, “condemn.”

[Q] One might even consider translating this as “healed.”

Epistle Lection, March 16 2014 Romans 4:1-4, 13-17; Comments on the Greek Text

Epistle Lection, March 16 2014

Romans 4:1-4, 13-17; Comments on the Greek Text

Ro 4:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν εὑρηκέναι Ἀβραὰμ τὸν προπάτορα ἡμῶν κατὰ σάρκα[A]; What then shall we say Abraham found—our forefather according to the flesh?
Ro 4:2 εἰ γὰρ Ἀβραὰμ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, ἔχει καύχημα· ἀλλ’ οὐ πρὸς θεόν, For if Abraham was justified from works, he has a boast, but not before/toward God.
Ro 4:3 τί γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει; Ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη[B] αὐτῷ εἰς[C] δικαιοσύνην. For what does the Scripture say?  “Abraham believed God, and it was counted for him as righteousness.”
Ro 4:4 τῷ δὲ ἐργαζομένῳ ὁ μισθὸς[D] οὐ λογίζεται κατὰ χάριν ἀλλὰ κατὰ ὀφείλημα· But for the one who works, the wage is not counted according to grace, but according to obligation.
Ro 4:5 τῷ δὲ μὴ ἐργαζομένῳ, πιστεύοντι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἀσεβῆ[E], λογίζεται ἡ πίστις αὐτοῦ εἰς δικαιοσύνην, But for the one who does not work, but who trusts on the one who justifies the ungodly, his [or her] faith is counted as righteousness.
Ro 4:13 Οὐ γὰρ διὰ νόμου ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἢ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ, τὸ[F] κληρονόμον αὐτὸν εἶναι κόσμου, ἀλλὰ διὰ δικαιοσύνης πίστεως[G]· For [it was] not through law [that] the promise [came] to Abraham or to his seed, [that] he [would] be [the] heir of the world, but through [the] righteousness of faith.
Ro 4:14 εἰ γὰρ οἱ ἐκ νόμου κληρονόμοι, κεκένωται ἡ πίστις καὶ κατήργηται[H] ἡ ἐπαγγελία· For if the heirs [are] from [the] law, faith has been emptied and the promise has been wiped out.
Ro 4:15 ὁ γὰρ νόμος ὀργὴν κατεργάζεται[I], οὗ δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος, οὐδὲ παράβασις. For the law accomplishes wrath, but where there is no law, neither [is there] transgression.
Ro 4:16 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐκ πίστεως,[J] ἵνα κατὰ χάριν, εἰς τὸ εἶναι βεβαίαν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν παντὶ τῷ σπέρματι, οὐ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ (ὅς ἐστιν πατὴρ πάντων ἡμῶν, For this reason [righteousness/promise comes] from faith, so that it [might be] according to grace, so that the promise might be secure to all the seed, not to the [one] who [lives] from the law only, but also to the one [who lives] from the faith of Abraham, (who is father of all of us,
Ro 4:17 καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι Πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν[K] τέθεικά σε), κατέναντι οὗ ἐπίστευσεν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῳοποιοῦντος τοὺς νεκροὺς καὶ καλοῦντος τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα[L]· as it is written, “I have appointed you [as] father of many nations/Gentiles,) in the presence of the God whom he trusted—the God who makes the dead come to life and calls the things that do not exist as if they do exist.

[A] The phrase could be adjectival (not just any forefather, but our forefather according to the flesh), or adverbial (What did Abraham our forefather find according to the flesh?)  Word order favors the former, but the latter is possible, and avoids the seeming oddity of Paul suddenly seeming to address only Jews.

[B] The more traditional translation is “reckoned.”  The word comes from the world of accounting.  That’s why I used “counted.”

[C] Or perhaps more literally “counted for him into righteousness.”

[D] The word can have the connotation of reward (beyond what is earned) or simply what is earned.  It may be better to translate simply “payment.”

[E] A surprising word here.  Paul has spoken earlier in chap. 3 of the justification of those who were not themselves righteous in their behavior, but implicitly identifying Abraham as one of the “ungodly” is a bit shocking here.  Cf. Rom 5:6.

[F] The article goes with the infinitive (thus neuter), not with the masculine κληρονόμον.

[G] Either a genitive of origin (the righteousness that comes from faith) or an appositional genitive (the righteousness that is faith.)

[H] Both verbs are perfect tense, indicating a continuing state which is the result of a prior action.

[I] See Rom 3:9ff.

[J] The subject is unstated.  “Promise” is suggested by its use later in the verse, but “righteousness” seems more like to come from faith.  The promise doesn’t originate in our faith, but in God’s free gift.  Nor is the giving of the promise dependent on faith, but only its reception.

[K] Note in Greek that this word could be translated either “nations” or “gentiles.”

[L] Literally, “calls the things not being as being.”  The “if” in my translation is interpretative.