March 23 2014 Epistle Lection Romans 5:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

March 23 2014 Epistle Lection

Romans 5:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

Note:  The gospel lection for this week runs a bit long (37 verses), so I’m going to pass on that one for this week.  But here’s the Romans reading.

Ro 5:1 Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως εἰρήνην ἔχομεν[A] πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, Therefore, having been justified from faith, we have peace toward God through our Lord Jesus Christ,
Ro 5:2 δι’ οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν[B] τῇ πίστει[C] εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν[D], καὶ καυχώμεθα[E] ἐπ’[F] ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ· through whom we also have obtained access by faith to this grace in which we stand, and we boast on [the] hope of the glory of God.
Ro 5:3 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμεθα[G] ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσιν, εἰδότες ὅτι ἡ θλῖψις ὑπομονὴν[H] κατεργάζεται, And not only [this], but we also boast in distresses, knowing that distress brings about endurance,
Ro 5:4 ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν[I], ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα. and endurance [brings about] character, and character [brings about] hope.
Ro 5:5 ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει· ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ[J] ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν. And hope does not put [us] to shame, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through [the] Holy Spirit given to us.
Ro 5:6 Ἔτι[K] γὰρ Χριστὸς ὄντων ἡμῶν ἀσθενῶν ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀπέθανεν. For while we were still weak, Christ, at the right time, still died on behalf of the ungodly.
Ro 5:7 μόλις γὰρ ὑπὲρ δικαίου τις ἀποθανεῖται· ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τάχα τις καὶ τολμᾷ ἀποθανεῖν· For scarcely on behalf of a righteous one will someone die; though possibly on behalf of the good [person] one even dares to die,
Ro 5:8 συνίστησιν δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀγάπην εἰς[L] ἡμᾶς ὁ θεὸς ὅτι[M] ἔτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὄντων ἡμῶν Χριστὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀπέθανεν. but God demonstrates his own love for us, because while we were still sinners, Christ died on our behalf.
Ro 5:9 πολλῷ οὖν μᾶλλον δικαιωθέντες νῦν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ σωθησόμεθα δι’ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς. So then by how much more, having now been justified in his blood, will we be saved through him from wrath?
Ro 5:10 εἰ γὰρ ἐχθροὶ ὄντες κατηλλάγημεν[N] τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, πολλῷ μᾶλλον καταλλαγέντες σωθησόμεθα ἐν[O] τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ· For if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled to God through the death of his son, by how much more, having been reconciled, will we be saved in his life?
Ro 5:11 οὐ μόνον δέ, ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμενοι[P] ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, δι’ οὗ νῦν τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν. And not only [this], but [we are] also boasting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we now [have] received the reconciliation.

[A] Note the textual variants between “let us have” (hortatory subjunctive) and the indicative “we have.”  Although the subjunctive “let us have” has better manuscript attestation, most interpreters think that the indicative “we have” is more likely the original intended reading, since it’s hard to imagine what sort of activity Paul is envisioning beyond what Christ has already accomplished, which might lead to peace with God.

[B] Literally “we are in the present and enduring state of having access.”

[C] Some manuscript uncertainty about whether “by faith” is part of the original.

[D] The perfect of this verb (the form we see here) is equivalent in meaning to the intransitive present tense.

[E] In terms of form this could be either indicative or subjunctive (alpha-contract verb), and this may be part of the reason for the confusion over ἔχομεν/ἔχωμεν above in v. 1 (see note A above), but the indicative seems much more likely in this context.

[F] Perhaps “on the basis of [our] hope . . .”

[G] Same ambiguity between indicative and subjunctive as the previous verse.  Same arguments apply.

[H] Literally “remaining under”

[I] Note BDAG 2 definition:  the experience of going through a test with special ref. to the result, standing a test, character

[J] Could be either objective genitive (our love for God) or subjective genitive (God’s love for us).

[K] Significant textual variants here—pretty tough to sort it all out.

[L] Or “into us.”

[M] Or “in that.”

[N] An unusual aorist passive where the –θη- marker doesn’t fully appear.

[O] There is a debate whether this should be interpreted locatively (“in his life”) or instrumentally (“by his life”).  Either is grammatically possible. (Same issue in the previous verse ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ as well.)

[P] It’s striking how frequently boasting recurs throughout this text.