June 15, 2014 Gospel and Epistle lections; Comments on the Greek text.

Getting ahead a little bit again.  Both the epistle and the gospel lection are short this week, so I’ve included both of them here.

2Co 13:11 Λοιπόν[A], ἀδελφοί, χαίρετε, καταρτίζεσθε[B], παρακαλεῖσθε[C], τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖτε[D], εἰρηνεύετε, καὶ ὁ θεὸς τῆς ἀγάπης καὶ εἰρήνης ἔσται μεθ’ ὑμῶν. As for the rest, brothers [and sisters], rejoice, mend your ways, be encouraged, have the same mind, be at peace, and the God of love and peace will be with y’all.
2Co 13:12 ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν ἁγίῳ φιλήματι.[E] ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἅγιοι πάντες. Greet one another with a holy kiss.  All the saints greet you.
2Co 13:13 ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ κοινωνία τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος[F] μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit [be] with all of you.
Mt 28:16 Οἱ δὲ ἕνδεκα μαθηταὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν εἰς τὸ ὄρος οὗ ἐτάξατο[G] αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, But the eleven disciples made their way into the Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus [had] instructed them.
Mt 28:17 καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν προσεκύνησαν, οἱ δὲ[H] ἐδίστασαν[I]. And seeing him, they worshiped, but some wavered.
Mt 28:18 καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς λέγων· Ἐδόθη μοι πᾶσα ἐξουσία ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· And coming forward, Jesus spoke to them, saying, “All authority in heaven and on the earth was given to me.
Mt 28:19 πορευθέντες[J] οὖν μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη,[K] βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς[L] εἰς τὸ ὄνομα[M] τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, As you go, therefore, disciple all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Mt 28:20 διδάσκοντες αὐτοὺς τηρεῖν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν·[N] καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος. teaching them to keep everything which I commanded you.  And look!  I am with you all the days—until the consummation of the age.

[A] The accusative of respect.  Literally “with respect to the rest.”

[B] “Mend your ways” is the suggestion of the BDAG lexicon for this text.  It could also be rendered “set yourselves in order.”

[C] Or one could render this in the middle voice:  “encourage yourselves.”

[D] Literally “think the same thing.”  Cf. the same phrase in Rom 15:5,  Phil 2:2, 4:2.

[E] A command occurring five times in the NT.  In addition to this one, see  Rom 16:16, 1 Cor 16:20, 1 Thess 5:26, 1 Peter 5:14.

[F] Note the Trinitarian reference, both here and in the Matt lection (v. 19)

[G] Or “to the mountain which Jesus [had] appointed for them.”

[H] This might also be rendered, “but they wavered,” indicating not just some of them wavered, but all of them.  Either is possible grammatically.  In either case, this verse has always struck me as one of the most interesting in the gospel of Matthew—that uncertainty can even fill moments like this one!  From an exegetical point of view, the next verse could easily be read as a response to this “wavering.”  Some kinds of uncertainty are only resolved by mission.

[I] “doubt,” “waver” or “hesitate.”

[J] Or one could read the participle as having imperatival force:  “Go, therefore . . .”

[K] The more typical translation “make disciples of all the nations” is an interpretation, but I have tried to translate more literally here.  There is no partitive sense—“of”—in the text itself.  Remember too, of course, that the same Greek word can be translated either “nations” or “gentiles,” though the translation “nations” arises here from the fact that the usage is in the neuter, rather than in the masculine gender.

[L] now we switch to the masculine gender, focusing more on persons than on nations.

[M] A single name belongs to all three!

[N] Interesting that it doesn’t say “teaching them to remember all that I taught you!”

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