May 18 2014 Gospel Lection, John 14:1-14 Comments on the Greek text

Jn 14:1 Μὴ ταρασσέσθω ὑμῶν[A] ἡ καρδία· πιστεύετε[B] εἰς[C] τὸν θεόν, καὶ εἰς ἐμὲ πιστεύετε. Don’t let your heart be disturbed; you believe into God—believe also into me.
Jn 14:2 ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ[D] τοῦ πατρός μου μοναὶ πολλαί εἰσιν· εἰ δὲ μή, εἶπον ἂν ὑμῖν ὅτι πορεύομαι ἑτοιμάσαι τόπον ὑμῖν·[E] In the household of my Father there are many dwelling places.  If it were not so, I would have told you, because I am going to prepare a place for you.
Jn 14:3 καὶ ἐὰν πορευθῶ καὶ ἑτοιμάσω τόπον ὑμῖν, πάλιν ἔρχομαι[F] καὶ παραλήμψομαι ὑμᾶς πρὸς[G] ἐμαυτόν, ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγὼ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἦτε. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I am coming again, and will take you along to myself, so that where I am you also may be.
Jn 14:4 καὶ ὅπου ἐγὼ ὑπάγω οἴδατε τὴν ὁδόν. And where I am going, you know the way.
Jn 14:5 λέγει αὐτῷ Θωμᾶς· Κύριε, οὐκ οἴδαμεν ποῦ ὑπάγεις· πῶς δυνάμεθα τὴν ὁδὸν εἰδέναι; Thomas says to him, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going; how can we know the way?”
Jn 14:6 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ δι’ ἐμοῦ. Jesus says to him, “I am the way and the truth and the life.  No one comes to the Father except through me.
Jn 14:7 εἰ ἐγνώκειτέ[H] με, καὶ τὸν πατέρα μου ἂν ᾔδειτε· ἀπ’ ἄρτι γινώσκετε αὐτὸν καὶ ἑωράκατε αὐτόν. If you knew me, you would also know my Father.  From now on you know him and have seen him.”
Jn 14:8 Λέγει αὐτῷ Φίλιππος· Κύριε, δεῖξον ἡμῖν τὸν πατέρα, καὶ ἀρκεῖ ἡμῖν. Philip says to him, “Lord, show us the Father, and it is enough for us.”
Jn 14:9 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Τοσούτῳ χρόνῳ[I] μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι καὶ οὐκ ἔγνωκάς με, Φίλιππε; ὁ ἑωρακὼς ἐμὲ ἑώρακεν τὸν πατέρα· πῶς σὺ λέγεις· Δεῖξον ἡμῖν τὸν πατέρα; Jesus says to him, “For so much time I am with you, and you have not known me, Philip?  The one who has seen me has seen the Father.  How do you say, ‘Show us the Father?’
Jn 14:10 οὐ[J] πιστεύεις ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοί ἐστιν; τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἐγὼ λέγω ὑμῖν ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ οὐ λαλῶ, ὁ δὲ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοὶ μένων ποιεῖ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ. Don’t you believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I speak to you, I don’t speak from myself, but the father abiding in me is doing his works.
Jn 14:11 πιστεύετέ[K] μοι ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρὶ καὶ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν ἐμοί· εἰ δὲ μή,[L] διὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτὰ πιστεύετε. Believe me that I [am] in the Father and the Father [is] in me.  But if not, believe the works themselves.
Jn 14:12 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ πιστεύων εἰς ἐμὲ τὰ ἔργα ἃ ἐγὼ ποιῶ κἀκεῖνος ποιήσει, καὶ μείζονα τούτων ποιήσει,[M] ὅτι ἐγὼ πρὸς τὸν πατέρα πορεύομαι· Amen, amen I say to you, the one who believes into me—the works that I do that one will also do, and will do greater than these [works], because I am going to the Father.
Jn 14:13 καὶ ὅ τι ἂν αἰτήσητε[N] ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου τοῦτο ποιήσω, ἵνα δοξασθῇ ὁ πατὴρ ἐν τῷ υἱῷ· And whatever you ask in my name, this I will do, so that the Father may be glorified in the Son.
Jn 14:14 ἐάν τι αἰτήσητέ με ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί μου ἐγὼ ποιήσω If you ask me anything in my name, I will do [it].

[A] Note that “your” is plural, but “heart” is singular.  Probably not a collective sense, but rather “don’t let the heart of [any of ] you be disturbed.

[B] This verb and the next form of the same verb for believe can be either indicative or imperative n(the form is the same), resulting in a variety of possibilities in translation.  If have rendered the first as indicative, and the second as imperative.  Both are present tense, indicating ongoing, continuous, or repeated action.

[C] This unifying sense of believe (“into”) is important in this text.

[D] Can refer either to building[s] or relationships.

[E] Many editions read this as a question (remember that there is very little punctuation in the earliest manuscripts).  Then it would read “If it were not so, would I have told you, that I am going to prepare a place for you?”  Yet this is a little more problematic, since that statement about preparing a place isn’t found explicitly earlier in the gospel.

[F] Present tense with a somewhat futuristic emphasis.

[G] Or even “with myself”

[H] There are some complex and evenly divided textual variants that make this verse shift from the contrary to fact form (that I have translated) to one that reads “If you have come to know me, you also will know my Father.”  I agree with the textual critics who argue that a version that places the disciples in a more negative light is more likely to be original.  But neither way of translation is without its problems.

[I] Dative case with expressions of time indicates time-within-which.

[J] Questions with οὐ expect a positive answer.

[K] I have translated both forms of the verb in the imperative mood, but they could also be indicatives:  “You believe me that I [am] in the Father and the Father [is] in me.  But if not, you believe the works themselves.”  This is less likely, I think.

[L] It is striking how the text does not assume that belief is “automatic” at this point!  Throughout John, faith is always dynamic and growing.

[M] It’s challenging to know how literally to press this verse.  Should we read “Amen, amen I say to you, the one who believes into me—the works that I do that one will also do (because of believing into me), and will do greater than these [works], (because I am going to the Father)?”

[N] Presumably this prayer is directed to the Father “in the name of Jesus,” since as a result, the Father is glorified in the Son.  This makes the next verse difficult, where prayer is directed to the Son.  Hard to know how to resolve this dilemma.  This is a classic crux in the Farewell Discourse.  In addition to these verses, cf. 15: 7, 16; 16:23, 24, 26.

May 11 2014 Gospel lection John 10:1-10; Comments on the Greek text

 

Jn 10:1 Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ μὴ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων ἀλλὰ ἀναβαίνων[A] ἀλλαχόθεν ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστὶν καὶ λῃστής· Amen, amen, I tell you, the one who does not enter through the gate into the courtyard of the sheep, but who goes up from another place—that one is a thief and a bandit.
Jn 10:2 ὁ δὲ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας ποιμήν ἐστιν τῶν προβάτων. But the one entering through the gate is [the] shepherd of the sheep.
Jn 10:3 τούτῳ ὁ θυρωρὸς ἀνοίγει, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς[B] αὐτοῦ ἀκούει καὶ τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα φωνεῖ κατ’ ὄνομα[C] καὶ ἐξάγει αὐτά. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice and he calls [his] own sheep by name and leads them out.
Jn 10:4 ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πάντα ἐκβάλῃ[D], ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα αὐτῷ ἀκολουθεῖ, ὅτι οἴδασιν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ· When he has driven out all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.
Jn 10:5 ἀλλοτρίῳ δὲ οὐ μὴ[E] ἀκολουθήσουσιν ἀλλὰ φεύξονται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδασι τῶν ἀλλοτρίων τὴν φωνήν. But they will surely not follow another, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of others.
Jn 10:6 ταύτην τὴν παροιμίαν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἃ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς.[F] Jesus told this saying to them, but they didn’t know what it was that he was saying to them.
Jn 10:7 Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα[G] τῶν προβάτων. Then again Jesus said to them, “Amen, amen I tell you, I am the gate of the sheep.
Jn 10:8 πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον [πρὸ ἐμοῦ[H]] κλέπται εἰσὶν καὶ λῃσταί· ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἤκουσαν[I] αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα. All who came before me are thieves and bandits, but the sheep did not listen to them.
Jn 10:9 ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· δι’ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ σωθήσεται καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει. I am the door; through me, if anyone enters [he or she] will be saved, and will go in and come out and find pasture.
Jn 10:10 ὁ κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ· ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσιν καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν. The thief doesn’t come except to kill and slaughter and destroy; I came so that they might have life and have [it] in abundance.

[A] More literally, “ascends,” recalling the recurring emphasis on John on Jesus as the one who “descends” from God, rather than ascending to God (cf. John 3:13; 6:33, 38, 41f., 50f., 58).  Metaphorically and in an expanded meaning, this “thief” who “ascends” from another place may refer to a revealer who does not “ascend” from the cross, in the way that Jesus would do, but pursues a self-preserving and enhancing path.  That’s why such a one is a thief.

[B]Remember that ἀκούω takes its object either in the accusative or in the genitive case.  When it takes the accusative, it speaks of “hearing about” in a more general way.  When it takes the genitive, it speaks of “hearing from” in a more direct way.  That’s what we see here.

[C] One of the most powerful images in Scripture is this sense of being called “by name” by God.

[D] A surprisingly strong verb—the same verb used when Jesus “drives out” demons.  Perhaps an allusion to the expulsion from the synagogue mentioned elsewhere in John (9:22, 12:42, 16:2)

[E] One would expect the aorist subjunctive after this οὐ μὴ construction, signifying emphatic future denial, and some MSS have this reading, but the more difficult reading (and thus the more likely original) is the future indicative—somewhat grammatically incorrect.

[F] Reinforcing the sense that there are multiple layers of meaning here, as I’ve tried to suggest in some of these notes.

[G] Now Jesus not only enters through the gate, but he is the gate!  Interesting morphing of the image.

[H] It is unclear whether “before me” was included in the original manuscript.  Was it deleted because it seemed to disparage all Old Testament revelation, or was it added to clarify an ambiguous sentence without it?  Hard to say—either solution is problematic.

[I] Or “the sheep did not hear them.”  Is the difference that they failed to speak comprehensibly to the sheep, or that the sheep refused to listen?  Hmm . . . .

Easter Gospel lection from John 20; Comments on the Greek text

Jn 20:1 Τῇ δὲ μιᾷ τῶν σαββάτων[A] Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἔρχεται[B] πρωῒ σκοτίας ἔτι οὔσης εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ βλέπει τὸν λίθον ἠρμένον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου. On the first [day] of the week, Mary Magdalene comes early, while it is still dark, to the tomb, and she sees the stone removed from the tomb.
Jn 20:2 τρέχει οὖν καὶ ἔρχεται πρὸς Σίμωνα Πέτρον καὶ πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητὴν ὃν ἐφίλει[C] ὁ Ἰησοῦς, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Ἦραν τὸν κύριον ἐκ τοῦ μνημείου, καὶ οὐκ οἴδαμεν[D] ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν. So she runs and comes to Simon Peter and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and she says to them, “They took the Lord from the tomb, and we don’t know where they placed him.”
Jn 20:3 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πέτρος καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητής, καὶ ἤρχοντο[E] εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον. Then Peter and the other disciple went out, and they were going to the tomb.
Jn 20:4 ἔτρεχον δὲ οἱ δύο ὁμοῦ· καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς προέδραμεν τάχιον τοῦ Πέτρου καὶ ἦλθεν πρῶτος εἰς[F] τὸ μνημεῖον, And the two were running together; and the other disciple ran ahead more quickly than Peter, and he came first to the tomb.
Jn 20:5 καὶ παρακύψας βλέπει κείμενα τὰ ὀθόνια, οὐ μέντοι εἰσῆλθεν. And after stooping down, he sees the cloth wrappings lying, though he did not go in.
Jn 20:6 ἔρχεται οὖν καὶ Σίμων Πέτρος ἀκολουθῶν αὐτῷ, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον· καὶ θεωρεῖ τὰ ὀθόνια κείμενα, Then Simon Peter also comes following him, and he entered into the tomb; and he sees the cloth wrappings lying,
Jn 20:7 καὶ τὸ σουδάριον, ὃ ἦν ἐπὶ τῆς κεφαλῆς αὐτοῦ, οὐ μετὰ τῶν ὀθονίων κείμενον ἀλλὰ χωρὶς ἐντετυλιγμένον εἰς ἕνα τόπον· And the facecloth, which was on his head, not lying with the wrappings, but apart, folded in one place.
Jn 20:8 τότε οὖν εἰσῆλθεν καὶ ὁ ἄλλος μαθητὴς ὁ ἐλθὼν πρῶτος εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, καὶ εἶδεν καὶ ἐπίστευσεν[G]· So then also the other disciple, who came first to the tomb, entered into the tomb, and he saw and believed.
Jn 20:9 οὐδέπω γὰρ ᾔδεισαν τὴν γραφὴν ὅτι δεῖ αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῆναι. For they did not yet know the Scripture, that it [was] necessary from him to rise from the dead.
Jn 20:10 ἀπῆλθον οὖν πάλιν πρὸς αὑτοὺς[H] οἱ μαθηταί. Then the disciples went out again to them.
Jn 20:11 Μαρία δὲ εἱστήκει[I] πρὸς[J] τῷ μνημείῳ ἔξω κλαίουσα. ὡς οὖν ἔκλαιεν παρέκυψεν εἰς τὸ μνημεῖον, But Mary was standing at the tomb outside weeping.  Then, as she was crying, she stooped down into the tomb.
Jn 20:12 καὶ θεωρεῖ δύο ἀγγέλους ἐν λευκοῖς καθεζομένους, ἕνα πρὸς τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ ἕνα πρὸς τοῖς ποσίν, ὅπου ἔκειτο[K] τὸ σῶμα τοῦ Ἰησοῦ. And she sees two angels in white, sitting one at the head and one at the feet, where the body of Jesus was lying.
Jn 20:13 καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῇ ἐκεῖνοι· Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; λέγει αὐτοῖς ὅτι Ἦραν τὸν κύριόν μου, καὶ οὐκ οἶδα ποῦ ἔθηκαν αὐτόν. And they say to her, “Woman, why are you crying?”  She says to them, “They took my Lord, and I don’t know where they placed him.”
Jn 20:14 ταῦτα εἰποῦσα ἐστράφη εἰς τὰ ὀπίσω, καὶ θεωρεῖ τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἑστῶτα, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδει ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ἐστιν. Having said these things, she turned around, and she sees Jesus standing, and she did not know that it [was] Jesus.
Jn 20:15 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς· Γύναι, τί κλαίεις; τίνα ζητεῖς; ἐκείνη δοκοῦσα ὅτι ὁ κηπουρός ἐστιν λέγει αὐτῷ· Κύριε[L], εἰ σὺ ἐβάστασας αὐτόν, εἰπέ μοι ποῦ ἔθηκας αὐτόν, κἀγὼ αὐτὸν ἀρῶ. Jesus says to her, “Woman, why are you crying?  Whom are you seeking?”  That one [i.e. Mary], thinking that he is the gardener, says to him, “Sir, if you carried him [off], tell me where you placed him, and I will take him away.”
Jn 20:16 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς· Μαριάμ. στραφεῖσα[M] ἐκείνη λέγει αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστί· Ραββουνι (ὃ λέγεται Διδάσκαλε). Jesus says to her, “Mary.”  Turning, that one says to him in Aramaic “Rabbouni” (which means “teacher”).
Jn 20:17 λέγει αὐτῇ Ἰησοῦς· Μή μου ἅπτου[N], οὔπω γὰρ ἀναβέβηκα πρὸς τὸν πατέρα· πορεύου δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀδελφούς[O] μου καὶ εἰπὲ αὐτοῖς· Ἀναβαίνω πρὸς τὸν πατέρα μου καὶ πατέρα ὑμῶν καὶ θεόν μου καὶ θεὸν ὑμῶν. Jesus says to her, “Stop holding me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father.  But go to my brothers and tell them ‘I am going to my Father and your Father, both my God and your God.’”
Jn 20:18 ἔρχεται Μαριὰμ ἡ Μαγδαληνὴ ἀγγέλλουσα τοῖς μαθηταῖς ὅτι[P] Ἑώρακα τὸν κύριον καὶ ταῦτα εἶπεν αὐτῇ. Mary Magdalene comes announcing to the disciples, “I have seen the Lord,” and that he said these things to her.

 

 

[A] Literally “on the first of the Sabbath”

[B] The present tense is used commonly throughout this passage to create a sense of vividness.  I have translated tenses literally.

[C] Imperfect tense, indicating continuous action in the past.  Jesus was in the present and enduring state of loving him.

[D] An interesting point of contact with the synoptic accounts, which have more than one woman, in contrast to John’s focus on Mary.

[E] Imperfect tense here connotes the beginning of an ongoing process.

[F] I translated “to the tomb” because that’s what the context seems to require (especially the end of v. 5), but the text says literally “into the tomb.”  (Cf. the same phrase in the prior verse, where “to the tomb” is the only possible meaning.)

[G] Note the significance and recurrence of this phrase in John—the juxtaposition of (and sometimes the distinction between) seeing and believing.

[H] I translated literally, but this is a classic difficult phrase to know how to translate, even though most translations render “to their homes.”  “To them” may simply refer to a return to the other disciples.

[I] Pluperfect in tense, but the perfect and pluperfect forms of this verb are simply the intransitive forms, so this is just a simple past tense.

[J] Literally “[facing] towards the tomb.”

[K] One might have expected a pluperfect here (i.e. “where the body of Jesus had been lying.”), since the story obviously intends to say that the body is missing, but the imperfect is what we have here.

[L] Depending on context, this can be translated either “sir” as a polite form of address, or “Lord.”

[M] She wasn’t facing him directly before?

[N] Literally “stop touching me,” though most commentators think that the emphasis is more on Mary’s trying to hold on to Jesus than on her simply touching him.

[O] Note the familial language all the way through this verse.

[P] Tough to translate, since the first clause to follow is clearly quoted speech, but the second is clearly indirect discourse.

Gospel Lection March 16, 2014; John 3:1-17, Comments on the Greek Text

Gospel Lection March 16, 2014

John 3:1-17, Comments on the Greek Text

Jn 3:1 Ἦν δὲ ἄνθρωπος ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων, Νικόδημος ὄνομα αὐτῷ, ἄρχων τῶν Ἰουδαίων[A]· There was a man from the Pharisees—Nicodemus [was] his name—a ruler of the Jews.
Jn 3:2 οὗτος ἦλθεν πρὸς αὐτὸν νυκτὸς[B] καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ῥαββί, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ἐλήλυθας διδάσκαλος· οὐδεὶς γὰρ δύναται ταῦτα τὰ σημεῖα ποιεῖν ἃ σὺ ποιεῖς, ἐὰν μὴ ᾖ ὁ θεὸς μετ’ αὐτοῦ. This one came to him [during the] night and said to him, “Rabbi, we know that you have come from God [as] a teacher, for no one is able to do these signs that you are doing, unless God is with him.”
Jn 3:3 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν[C], οὐ δύναται ἰδεῖν τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born from above/again, he [or she] is not able to see the kingdom of God.”
Jn 3:4 λέγει πρὸς αὐτὸν ὁ Νικόδημος· Πῶς δύναται ἄνθρωπος γεννηθῆναι γέρων ὤν; μὴ[D] δύναται εἰς τὴν κοιλίαν τῆς μητρὸς αὐτοῦ δεύτερον εἰσελθεῖν καὶ γεννηθῆναι; Nicodemus says to him, “How can someone be born while being old?  He [or she] is not able to enter into the womb of his [or her] mother a second time and to be born, is he [or she]?”
Jn 3:5 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι, ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἐξ ὕδατος[E] καὶ πνεύματος, οὐ δύναται εἰσελθεῖν[F] εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ. Jesus answered, “Truly, truly I say to you, unless someone is born from water and Spirit, he [or she] is not able to enter into the kingdom of God.
Jn 3:6 τὸ γεγεννημένον[G] ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς σάρξ ἐστιν, καὶ τὸ γεγεννημένον ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος πνεῦμά ἐστιν. What has been born from the flesh is flesh, and what has been born from the Spirit is spirit.
Jn 3:7 μὴ θαυμάσῃς ὅτι εἶπόν σοι Δεῖ ὑμᾶς γεννηθῆναι ἄνωθεν. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born again/from above.’
Jn 3:8 τὸ πνεῦμα[H] ὅπου θέλει πνεῖ, καὶ τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ ἀκούεις, ἀλλ’ οὐκ οἶδας πόθεν ἔρχεται καὶ ποῦ ὑπάγει· οὕτως[I] ἐστὶν πᾶς ὁ γεγεννημένος ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος. The wind/Spirit blows where it wills, and you hear its sound, but you do not know from where it comes and where it goes.  Thus is each who is one born from the Spirit.”
Jn 3:9 ἀπεκρίθη Νικόδημος καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Πῶς δύναται ταῦτα γενέσθαι;[J] Nicodemus answered and said to him, “How can these things be?”
Jn 3:10 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Σὺ εἶ ὁ[K] διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ ταῦτα οὐ γινώσκεις; Jesus answered and said to him, “Are you the teacher of Israel, and you do not know these things?
Jn 3:11 ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω σοι ὅτι ὃ οἴδαμεν λαλοῦμεν καὶ ὃ ἑωράκαμεν μαρτυροῦμεν, καὶ τὴν μαρτυρίαν ἡμῶν οὐ λαμβάνετε.[L] Truly, truly I say to you, “What we know, we speak, and what we have seen, we bear witness [to], and y’all do not receive our testimony.
Jn 3:12 εἰ τὰ ἐπίγεια εἶπον ὑμῖν καὶ οὐ πιστεύετε, πῶς ἐὰν εἴπω ὑμῖν τὰ ἐπουράνια πιστεύσετε; If I told y’all earthly things and y’all do not believe, how will y’all believe if I tell you heavenly things?
Jn 3:13 καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς, ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. And no one has ascended into heaven except the one who descended from heaven, the Son of Man.
Jn 3:14 καὶ καθὼς Μωϋσῆς ὕψωσεν τὸν ὄφιν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ, οὕτως ὑψωθῆναι δεῖ τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, And just as Moses lifted up the snake in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up,
Jn 3:15 ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων ἐν αὐτῷ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον[M]. so that everyone who believes in him might have eternal life.
Jn 3:16 Οὕτως[N] γὰρ ἠγάπησεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν κόσμον ὥστε τὸν υἱὸν τὸν μονογενῆ[O] ἔδωκεν, ἵνα πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων εἰς αὐτὸν μὴ ἀπόληται ἀλλὰ ἔχῃ ζωὴν αἰώνιον. For God so loved the world that he gave the only son, so that everyone who believes in him might not be destroyed, but might have eternal life.
Jn 3:17 οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν εἰς τὸν κόσμον ἵνα κρίνῃ[P] τὸν κόσμον, ἀλλ’ ἵνα σωθῇ[Q] ὁ κόσμος δι’ αὐτοῦ. For God did not send the son into the world in order that he might judge the world, but in order that the world might be saved through him.

[A] There is a big debate in Johannine scholarship over whether this should be translated “Jews” or “Judeans.”

[B] Genitive case with expressions of time denotes time-within-which.

[C] this word can mean either “from above” or “again.”  The drama of the scene arises from the fact that Jesus means it in both ways, but Nicodemus only understands it as “again,” missing the notion of birth from God.

[D] The expected answer to this question, of course, is “no,” as is always the case with questions using the negative μη.

[E] There is some debate about whether this is a reference to the water of birth or of baptism.  I am inclined to think it’s the latter, and the two form a hendiadys—two ways of speaking about the same thing.

[F] Note the shift from “seeing” in verse 3 to “entering” here.

[G] Note the neuter tenses!  Interestingly, this is not referring to persons.

[H] Note the double meaning that is hard to translate into English.

[I] “Thus” in the sense of “This is the way it is with”

[J] Nicodemus’ last words in this chapter.

[K] Hard to know whether this article should be emphasized or not—the teacher of Israel.

[L] Note the shift to the plural tenses throughout this verse.

[M] The adjective doesn’t focus primarily on “eternal” in the sense of endless, but rather as a life characteristic of the age to come.

[N] Two ways to render this:  (1)  God loved the world in this way, namely that he gave . . . “  (2) God loved the world to such an extent that he gave . . .”  Either is grammatically possible.

[O] Not “only-begotten” but “only” or “unique.”

[P] The verb can have either a neutral connotation “judge” or a negative one, “condemn.”

[Q] One might even consider translating this as “healed.”