July 6 2014 Gospel lection; Comments on the Greek text of Matt 11:16ff.

Mt 11:16 Τίνι δὲ ὁμοιώσω τὴν γενεὰν ταύτην; ὁμοία ἐστὶν παιδίοις καθημένοις ἐν ταῖς ἀγοραῖς[A] ἃ προσφωνοῦντα τοῖς ἑτέροις But to what shall I compare this generation?  It is like children, sitting in the marketplace, who call out to the others,
Mt 11:17 λέγουσιν[B]· Ηὐλήσαμεν ὑμῖν καὶ οὐκ ὠρχήσασθε· ἐθρηνήσαμεν καὶ οὐκ ἐκόψασθε·[C] saying, “We played the flute for you and you did not dance; we sang [a dirge] and you did not beat [the breast].
Mt 11:18 ἦλθεν γὰρ Ἰωάννης μήτε ἐσθίων μήτε πίνων, καὶ λέγουσιν· Δαιμόνιον ἔχει· For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, “He has a demon.”
Mt 11:19 ἦλθεν ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐσθίων καὶ πίνων, καὶ λέγουσιν· Ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος φάγος καὶ οἰνοπότης, τελωνῶν φίλος καὶ ἁμαρτωλῶν. καὶ ἐδικαιώθη ἡ σοφία ἀπὸ τῶν ἔργων αὐτῆς.[D] The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, “Behold a person [who is] a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.”  And wisdom is justified from her deeds.
Mt 11:25 Ἐν ἐκείνῳ τῷ καιρῷ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν· Ἐξομολογοῦμαί[E] σοι, πάτερ κύριε τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καὶ τῆς γῆς, ὅτι ἔκρυψας ταῦτα ἀπὸ σοφῶν καὶ συνετῶν,[F] καὶ ἀπεκάλυψας αὐτὰ νηπίοις[G]· In that time, answering Jesus said, “I praise you, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you hid these things from [the] wise and understanding, and revealed them to infants.
Mt 11:26 ναί[H], ὁ πατήρ, ὅτι οὕτως εὐδοκία ἐγένετο ἔμπροσθέν σου. Indeed, Father, for [all this] happened before you in this way as [your] good pleasure.
Mt 11:27 Πάντα μοι παρεδόθη ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρός μου, καὶ οὐδεὶς ἐπιγινώσκει[I] τὸν υἱὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ πατήρ, οὐδὲ τὸν πατέρα τις ἐπιγινώσκει εἰ μὴ ὁ υἱὸς καὶ ᾧ ἐὰν[J] βούληται[K] ὁ υἱὸς ἀποκαλύψαι. All things were handed over to me by my Father, and no one recognizes the Son except the Father, neither does anyone recognize the Father except the Son, and [the one] to whom the Son chooses to make a revelation.
Mt 11:28 Δεῦτε πρός με πάντες οἱ κοπιῶντες καὶ πεφορτισμένοι, κἀγὼ ἀναπαύσω ὑμᾶς.[L] Come to me, all who toil and are burdened, and I will refresh you.
Mt 11:29 ἄρατε τὸν ζυγόν μου ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς καὶ μάθετε[M] ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ, ὅτι πραΰς εἰμι καὶ ταπεινὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ,[N] καὶ εὑρήσετε ἀνάπαυσιν ταῖς ψυχαῖς[O] ὑμῶν· Take my yoke upon y’all and learn from me, because I am gentle and lowly [in] heart, and you will find rest for your lives.
Mt 11:30 ὁ γὰρ ζυγός μου χρηστὸς[P] καὶ τὸ φορτίον μου ἐλαφρόν ἐστιν. For my yoke is easy [to wear], and my load is light.

 

[A] The open area in the center of town where things are bought and sold.

[B] Could be either present indicative 3rd singular (they say), or dative plural neuter participle (saying).  The form is the same.

[C] Hence you do not want to play at all, either happy or sad games.

[D] Most commentators think that God’s wisdom is in view here, and the “works” of wisdom refer to the contradictory responses outlines just above.  This is illustrated in the woes which follow (vss. 20-24), but which are excluded from this lection.  Cf. a similar motif in v. 26.

[E] Literally “I confess to you,” though that meaning seems less likely here.

[F] Cf. 1 Cor 1:19.

[G] A term for younger children than the παιδία mentioned above in v. 16.

[H] Literally “yes.”

[I] Or just “knows,” though the preposition attached to the verb strengthens the force to some extent.

[J] This probably goes with the preceding pronoun, broadening its meaning (“to whomever”), rather than meaning “if” in this context.

[K] Or “wills”

[L] A remarkably generous verse, particularly after the exclusiveness of the previous verse.

[M] The verbal cognate for the noun disciple (μαθητής)

[N] Hence not inclined to dominate and control.

[O] The word does not carried the disembodied sense that often accompanies the English word “souls.”

[P] Or “good” or “kind.”

June 29, 2014 Epistle and Gospel lections; comments on the Greek text

Ro 6:12 Μὴ οὖν βασιλευέτω[A] ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θνητῷ ὑμῶν σώματι εἰς[B] τὸ ὑπακούειν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτοῦ, Therefore sin must not reign in your mortal bodies resulting in obeying its passions.
Ro 6:13 μηδὲ παριστάνετε[C] τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα[D] ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἀλλὰ παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ὡσεὶ ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας καὶ τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα δικαιοσύνης τῷ θεῷ. And stop offering your body parts [as] tools of unrighteousness to sin, but offer yourselves to God as alive from [the] dead, and your body parts [as] tools of righteousness to God.
Ro 6:14 ἁμαρτία γὰρ ὑμῶν οὐ κυριεύσει[E], οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν. For sin will not rule you, for you are not under law, but under grace.
Ro 6:15 Τί οὖν; ἁμαρτήσωμεν[F] ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν;[G] μὴ γένοιτο· What then?  Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace?  No way!
Ro 6:16 οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην;[H] Don’t you know that to whom[ever] you present yourselves as slaves for obedience, you are slaves to the one whom you obey, either [slaves of] sin [which leads] to death or of obedience [which leads] to righteousness?
Ro 6:17 χάρις[I] δὲ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον[J] διδαχῆς, But thanks [be] to God that you were slaves of sin, but you obeyed from [the] heart [the] pattern of teaching into which you were handed over.
Ro 6:18 ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐδουλώθητε[K] τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ· And having been freed from sin, you were enslaved to righteousness.
Ro 6:19 ἀνθρώπινον[L] λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν, οὕτως νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα[M] τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν. I am speaking humanly because of the weakness of your flesh; for just as you presented your body parts [as] slaves to impurity and to lawlessness resulting in lawlessness, so now present your body parts [as] slaves to righteousness, resulting in sanctification.
Ro 6:20 Ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι[N] ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with respect to righteousness.
Ro 6:21 τίνα οὖν καρπὸν[O] εἴχετε τότε ἐφ’ οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; τὸ γὰρ τέλος[P] ἐκείνων θάνατος· What result were you having then, because of which [things] you are now ashamed?  For the end of those [things] is death.
Ro 6:22 νυνὶ δέ, ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. But now, having been freed from sin, and having become enslaved to God, you have your result [moving] into sanctification, and [its] end, eternal life.
Ro 6:23 τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας[Q] θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα[R] τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. For the compensation paid by sin is death, but the gift of God is life eternal in Christ Jesus our Lord.
Mt 10:40 Ὁ δεχόμενος ὑμᾶς ἐμὲ δέχεται, καὶ ὁ ἐμὲ δεχόμενος δέχεται τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με. The one who welcomes you welcomes me, and the one who welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me.
Mt 10:41 ὁ δεχόμενος προφήτην εἰς ὄνομα προφήτου[S] μισθὸν προφήτου λήμψεται, καὶ ὁ δεχόμενος δίκαιον εἰς ὄνομα δικαίου μισθὸν δικαίου λήμψεται. The one who welcomes a prophet in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward; and the one who welcomes a righteous person  in the name of a righteous person will receive the reward of a righteous person.
Mt 10:42 καὶ ὃς ἂν ποτίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων ποτήριον ψυχροῦ μόνον εἰς ὄνομα μαθητοῦ, ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσῃ[T] τὸν μισθὸν αὐτοῦ. And whoever gives a drink [of] a cup of cold [water to] one of these little ones in the name of a disciple—truly I tell you, he [or she] will surely not lose his [or her] reward.

[A] A third-person imperative.  We don’t have this in English, so it’s hard to render.  “Don’t let sin reign” sounds like a command that is given to us, but that’s not what the text is saying.  My translation is an attempt to get at the sense.

[B] This preposition with an infinitive usually expresses purposes, but result seems to make more sense here, and is grammatically possible.

[C] A negative with a present imperative usually suggests ceasing an action that is already underway, usually in a continuous, repeated, or habitual manner.

[D] The more generic “tools” seems to fit better than a focus on military usage with “weapons.”

[E] Note it’s a future, not an imperative.  A simple statement of fact!

[F] Deliberative aorist subjunctive.

[G] Apparently a fairly common question Paul had to deal with!  It seems to be the concern dominating this whole section.

[H] A radically different anthropology from our culture’s idolization of individual freedom!

[I] See BDAG section 5 for this meaning.

[J] See BDAG section 4 for this meaning.  It’s interesting that the obedience of faith does not focus centrally on particular forms of obedience, but rather on a pattern of teaching.

[K] In this sense, at least, radical freedom is not a possibility.

[L] Neuter accusative singular form indicates adverbial usage.

[M] In other words, your body parts don’t make decisions on their own—they serve some larger purpose.  The only question is which purpose they will serve?

[N] (Apparently) free in the sense that there was no understood or lived-out obligation with respect to righteousness.

[O] Literally “what fruit?”

[P] “end” in the sense of goal or target toward which they are moving.  It’s important to recognize these two basic categories—actions have “fruit” or “results” in the near term, and an “end” or “goal” in the long run.

[Q] My translation reads this as a genitive of source.

[R] Note the central contrast here between compensation and gift.  This remains a core reality, despite the passage’s critique of absolute notions of freedom.

[S] Most commentators read “in the name of a prophet” in the sense of “because he or she is a prophet,” or “as a prophet.”  And similarly below.

[T] οὐ μὴ + aorist subjunctive = emphatic future denial.

June 22 2014 Epistle lection, Rom 6:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

Ro 6:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ[A], ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ;[B] What then shall we say?  Shall we persist with respect to sin, so that grace may abound?
Ro 6:2 μὴ γένοιτο· οἵτινες ἀπεθάνομεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ,[C] πῶς ἔτι ζήσομεν ἐν αὐτῇ; No way!  How shall we, who died with respect to sin, still live in it?
Ro 6:3 ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε ὅτι ὅσοι ἐβαπτίσθημεν[D] εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν;[E] Or are you ignorant that all [of us] who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
Ro 6:4 συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. So we were buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from [the] dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life.
Ro 6:5 Εἰ γὰρ σύμφυτοι[F] γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι[G] τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἐσόμεθα· For if we have become identified with the likeness of his death, all the more will we also [be identified with the likeness] of his resurrection.
Ro 6:6 τοῦτο γινώσκοντες ὅτι ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος[H] συνεσταυρώθη, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας, τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, Knowing this, that our old person was crucified together [with him], so that the body of sin might be set aside, so that we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Ro 6:7 ὁ γὰρ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται[I] ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας. For the one who died has been justified away from sin.
Ro 6:8 εἰ δὲ ἀπεθάνομεν σὺν Χριστῷ, πιστεύομεν ὅτι καὶ συζήσομεν[J] αὐτῷ· But if we died with Christ, we believe that we also will live together with him,
Ro 6:9 εἰδότες ὅτι Χριστὸς ἐγερθεὶς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὐκέτι ἀποθνῄσκει, θάνατος αὐτοῦ[K] οὐκέτι κυριεύει· knowing that Christ, having been raised from [the] dead, no longer dies; death no longer rules him.
Ro 6:10 ὃ[L] γὰρ ἀπέθανεν, τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀπέθανεν ἐφάπαξ· ὃ δὲ ζῇ, ζῇ τῷ θεῷ. What he died, he died to sin once for all; but what he lives, he lives to God.
Ro 6:11 οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς λογίζεσθε[M] ἑαυτοὺς εἶναι νεκροὺς μὲν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ζῶντας δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. So you also—think about yourselves being dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.

[A] The dative of respect is not easy to translate.  These sense is something like “shall we remain in relationship to sin?”

[B] Recalling 5:20b.

[C] Cf. Gal 2:19, where Paul uses the same sort of construction to speak of dying to the law.

[D] Note that it’s first person plural, not third person.  Hence the “[of us]” in brackets in the translation.

[E] Note the interesting chiastic structure of this verse:

ἐβαπτίσθημεν

εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν

εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ

ἐβαπτίσθημεν;

[F] Literally “grown together with”

[G] For some interesting parallels in Paul for this word, cf. Rom. 1:23, Rom. 5:14, Rom. 8:3, Phil. 2:7.

[H] The word does not exactly mean “self” as the NRSV, NIV, and many others render it. The focus is not individualistic, but collective, particularly in light of the discussion of Adam and Christ in the previous chapter.

[I] A somewhat surprising word here—lots of stuff in the commentaries about this.

[J] Note the future tense—this is a reference to resurrection which has not yet happened in Paul’s framework.

[K] The verb κυριεύω takes its object in the genitive case.

[L] Probably an accusative of respect, since this verb can’t take a direct object.  “With respect to what he died . . .”  That’s where some translations get “in that.”

[M] Present imperative connotes ongoing, habitual, or repeated action.  The verb carries the sense of adding up a column of figures, and coming to a result.

June 15, 2014 Gospel and Epistle lections; Comments on the Greek text.

Getting ahead a little bit again.  Both the epistle and the gospel lection are short this week, so I’ve included both of them here.

2Co 13:11 Λοιπόν[A], ἀδελφοί, χαίρετε, καταρτίζεσθε[B], παρακαλεῖσθε[C], τὸ αὐτὸ φρονεῖτε[D], εἰρηνεύετε, καὶ ὁ θεὸς τῆς ἀγάπης καὶ εἰρήνης ἔσται μεθ’ ὑμῶν. As for the rest, brothers [and sisters], rejoice, mend your ways, be encouraged, have the same mind, be at peace, and the God of love and peace will be with y’all.
2Co 13:12 ἀσπάσασθε ἀλλήλους ἐν ἁγίῳ φιλήματι.[E] ἀσπάζονται ὑμᾶς οἱ ἅγιοι πάντες. Greet one another with a holy kiss.  All the saints greet you.
2Co 13:13 ἡ χάρις τοῦ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ κοινωνία τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος[F] μετὰ πάντων ὑμῶν. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ and the love of God and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit [be] with all of you.
Mt 28:16 Οἱ δὲ ἕνδεκα μαθηταὶ ἐπορεύθησαν εἰς τὴν Γαλιλαίαν εἰς τὸ ὄρος οὗ ἐτάξατο[G] αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς, But the eleven disciples made their way into the Galilee, to the mountain where Jesus [had] instructed them.
Mt 28:17 καὶ ἰδόντες αὐτὸν προσεκύνησαν, οἱ δὲ[H] ἐδίστασαν[I]. And seeing him, they worshiped, but some wavered.
Mt 28:18 καὶ προσελθὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐλάλησεν αὐτοῖς λέγων· Ἐδόθη μοι πᾶσα ἐξουσία ἐν οὐρανῷ καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς· And coming forward, Jesus spoke to them, saying, “All authority in heaven and on the earth was given to me.
Mt 28:19 πορευθέντες[J] οὖν μαθητεύσατε πάντα τὰ ἔθνη,[K] βαπτίζοντες αὐτοὺς[L] εἰς τὸ ὄνομα[M] τοῦ πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἁγίου πνεύματος, As you go, therefore, disciple all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,
Mt 28:20 διδάσκοντες αὐτοὺς τηρεῖν πάντα ὅσα ἐνετειλάμην ὑμῖν·[N] καὶ ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰμι πάσας τὰς ἡμέρας ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος. teaching them to keep everything which I commanded you.  And look!  I am with you all the days—until the consummation of the age.

[A] The accusative of respect.  Literally “with respect to the rest.”

[B] “Mend your ways” is the suggestion of the BDAG lexicon for this text.  It could also be rendered “set yourselves in order.”

[C] Or one could render this in the middle voice:  “encourage yourselves.”

[D] Literally “think the same thing.”  Cf. the same phrase in Rom 15:5,  Phil 2:2, 4:2.

[E] A command occurring five times in the NT.  In addition to this one, see  Rom 16:16, 1 Cor 16:20, 1 Thess 5:26, 1 Peter 5:14.

[F] Note the Trinitarian reference, both here and in the Matt lection (v. 19)

[G] Or “to the mountain which Jesus [had] appointed for them.”

[H] This might also be rendered, “but they wavered,” indicating not just some of them wavered, but all of them.  Either is possible grammatically.  In either case, this verse has always struck me as one of the most interesting in the gospel of Matthew—that uncertainty can even fill moments like this one!  From an exegetical point of view, the next verse could easily be read as a response to this “wavering.”  Some kinds of uncertainty are only resolved by mission.

[I] “doubt,” “waver” or “hesitate.”

[J] Or one could read the participle as having imperatival force:  “Go, therefore . . .”

[K] The more typical translation “make disciples of all the nations” is an interpretation, but I have tried to translate more literally here.  There is no partitive sense—“of”—in the text itself.  Remember too, of course, that the same Greek word can be translated either “nations” or “gentiles,” though the translation “nations” arises here from the fact that the usage is in the neuter, rather than in the masculine gender.

[L] now we switch to the masculine gender, focusing more on persons than on nations.

[M] A single name belongs to all three!

[N] Interesting that it doesn’t say “teaching them to remember all that I taught you!”

June 8 2014 Epistle lection; 1 Corinthians 12:3b-13; Comments on the Greek text

1Co 12:3b καὶ οὐδεὶς δύναται εἰπεῖν· Κύριος Ἰησοῦς[A] εἰ μὴ ἐν[B] πνεύματι ἁγίῳ. And no one is able to say “Lord Jesus” except in [the] Holy Spirit.
1Co 12:4 Διαιρέσεις δὲ χαρισμάτων εἰσίν, τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ[C] πνεῦμα· There are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit.
1Co 12:5 καὶ διαιρέσεις διακονιῶν[D] εἰσιν, καὶ ὁ αὐτὸς κύριος· And varieties of ministries, and the same Lord.
1Co 12:6 καὶ διαιρέσεις ἐνεργημάτων εἰσίν, ὁ δὲ αὐτὸς θεός, ὁ ἐνεργῶν[E] τὰ πάντα ἐν πᾶσιν. And there are varieties of activities, but the same God who activates all things in all [people].
1Co 12:7 ἑκάστῳ δὲ δίδοται[F] ἡ φανέρωσις τοῦ πνεύματος[G] πρὸς τὸ συμφέρον. To each one is being given the disclosure of the Spirit, for [what is] profitable.
1Co 12:8 ᾧ μὲν γὰρ διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος δίδοται λόγος[H] σοφίας, ἄλλῳ δὲ λόγος γνώσεως κατὰ[I] τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα, For to one, through the Spirit, is being given a statement of wisdom; to another a statement of knowledge according to the same Spirit.
1Co 12:9 ἑτέρῳ πίστις ἐν[J] τῷ αὐτῷ πνεύματι, ἄλλῳ χαρίσματα ἰαμάτων ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ πνεύματι, To another faith by the same Spirit; to another gifts of healing by the one Spirit.
1Co 12:10 ἄλλῳ ἐνεργήματα δυνάμεων[K], ἄλλῳ προφητεία, ἄλλῳ διακρίσεις[L] πνευμάτων, ἑτέρῳ γένη γλωσσῶν[M], ἄλλῳ ἑρμηνεία γλωσσῶν· To another workings of miracles; to another prophecy; to another distinguishing of spirits; to another types of tongues; to another interpretation of tongues.
1Co 12:11 πάντα δὲ ταῦτα ἐνεργεῖ τὸ ἓν καὶ τὸ αὐτὸ πνεῦμα, διαιροῦν ἰδίᾳ ἑκάστῳ καθὼς βούλεται. But all these, the one and the same Spirit activates, distributing to each one just as [the Spirit] wills.
1Co 12:12 Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ Χριστός[N]· For just as the body is one, and has many members, and all the members of the body, being many, are one body, so also [is] the Christ.
1Co 12:13 καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν, εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι,[O] καὶ πάντες ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν[P]. For also in one Spirit we all were baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slave or free, and all were given to drink [of] one Spirit.

[A] Or “Jesus is Lord,” though the accent clearly is falling on “Lord,” regardless of which word order is chosen.

[B] Hard to know whether to render the preposition “in” or “by.”  Either is grammatically possible.

[C] Forms of αὐτὸς, when found in the attributive position, mean “same.”

[D] Hard to know how to translate this without sounding too ecclesiastical.  Literally “table service.”

[E] Literally “works” or “effects.”  I have translated “activates” to underscore the common term with the noun form ἐνεργημάτων earlier in the verse.

[F] I translated “is being given” to underscore the ongoing force of the present tense.

[G] The genitive could be objective (the disclosure which reveals the Spirit) or a genitive of source (the disclosure which comes from the Spirit).

[H] I have translated “statement” because the meaning of λόγος is not restricted to a single word alone.

[I] Note the variety of prepositions, seemingly used almost interchangeably by Paul in this text.

[J] Could also be rendered “faith in the same Spirit” but that sort of “objective meaning” of the preposition seems less likely here.

[K] I’ve translated “miracles” since this is a common rendering, though it could also be “powers.”

[L] or even “judging of spirits”!

[M] Or “languages” here and in the next usage.

[N] Or “the Messiah”

[O] Cf. Gal 3:28.

[P] Interesting how the water of baptism impacts not only the exterior of the body, but the interior!

June 1 Gospel lection, John 17:1-10; Comments on the Greek text

Jn 17:1 Ταῦτα ἐλάλησεν Ἰησοῦς, καὶ ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἶπεν[A]· Πάτερ, ἐλήλυθεν ἡ ὥρα[B]· δόξασόν[C] σου τὸν υἱόν, ἵνα ὁ υἱὸς δοξάσῃ σέ, Jesus said these things, and having lifted up his eyes to heaven, he said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify your son, so that the son may glorify you.
Jn 17:2 καθὼς ἔδωκας[D] αὐτῷ ἐξουσίαν πάσης σαρκός, ἵνα πᾶν[E] ὃ δέδωκας αὐτῷ δώσῃ αὐτοῖς ζωὴν αἰώνιον. Just as you gave him authority [over] all flesh, so that [with respect to] all that you have given to him, he might give to them eternal life.
Jn 17:3 αὕτη δέ ἐστιν ἡ αἰώνιος ζωὴ ἵνα[F] γινώσκωσι[G] σὲ τὸν μόνον ἀληθινὸν θεὸν καὶ ὃν ἀπέστειλας Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν. And this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and [the one] whom you sent, Jesus Christ.
Jn 17:4 ἐγώ σε ἐδόξασα ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, τὸ ἔργον τελειώσας ὃ δέδωκάς μοι ἵνα ποιήσω· I glorified you on the earth, having completed the work which you have given me to do.
Jn 17:5 καὶ νῦν δόξασόν με σύ, πάτερ, παρὰ σεαυτῷ τῇ δόξῃ ᾗ εἶχον πρὸ τοῦ τὸν κόσμον εἶναι παρὰ σοί.[H] And now, glorify me, Father, alongside yourself, with the glory that I had before the world was, alongside you.
Jn 17:6 Ἐφανέρωσά σου τὸ ὄνομα[I] τοῖς ἀνθρώποις οὓς ἔδωκάς μοι ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου. σοὶ ἦσαν κἀμοὶ αὐτοὺς ἔδωκας, καὶ τὸν λόγον σου τετήρηκαν. I manifested your name to the people whom you gave to me from the world.  They were yours, and you gave them to me, and they have kept your word.
Jn 17:7 νῦν ἔγνωκαν[J] ὅτι πάντα ὅσα δέδωκάς μοι παρὰ σοῦ εἰσιν· Now they have come to know that all [the] things which you have given to me are from you.
Jn 17:8 ὅτι τὰ ῥήματα ἃ ἔδωκάς[K] μοι δέδωκα αὐτοῖς, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλαβον καὶ ἔγνωσαν ἀληθῶς ὅτι παρὰ σοῦ ἐξῆλθον, καὶ ἐπίστευσαν[L] ὅτι σύ με ἀπέστειλας. Because the statements which you gave to me, I have given to them, and they received [them] and came to know truly that I came forth from you, and they believed that you sent me.
Jn 17:9 ἐγὼ περὶ αὐτῶν ἐρωτῶ· οὐ περὶ τοῦ κόσμου ἐρωτῶ ἀλλὰ περὶ ὧν δέδωκάς μοι, ὅτι σοί εἰσιν, I ask concerning them; I do not ask concerning the world, but concerning [those] whom you have given to me, because they are yours.
Jn 17:10 καὶ τὰ ἐμὰ πάντα σά ἐστιν καὶ τὰ σὰ ἐμά, καὶ δεδόξασμαι ἐν αὐτοῖς. And all that is mine is yours, and what is yours is mine, and I have been glorified in them.
Jn 17:11 καὶ οὐκέτι εἰμὶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ[M], καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ εἰσίν, κἀγὼ πρὸς σὲ ἔρχομαι. πάτερ ἅγιε, τήρησον αὐτοὺς ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου ᾧ[N] δέδωκάς μοι, ἵνα ὦσιν ἓν καθὼς ἡμεῖς. And I am no longer in the world, and [yet] they are in the world, and I am coming to you.  Holy Father, keep them in your name which you have given to me, in order that they may be one, just as we [are.]”

[A] Indicating the shift from direct address to prayer at this point.

[B] Forms a nice bookend with 2:4.  Surveying this word in john will yield some interesting results.

[C] This “glorification” of course, is the paradoxical “lifting up” of the Son of Man on the cross, as well as the resurrection.

[D] Aorist indicates a prior giving (in the incarnation?)

[E] Interesting shift from the neuter (encompassing more than persons) to the masculine gender later in the verse, focusing specifically on persons.  What God has given to Jesus encompasses more than persons alone.

[F] Could be epexegetical, as I have translated here (“that”), or one might translate it as a purpose clause, indicating the reason for eternal life:  “This is eternal life, so that they may know you, . . .”

[G] Present tense indicates not a one-time sort of knowing, but one that is ongoing and continuous.

[H] This verse, taken by itself, might suggest that the ascension is simply a return to a former state for the second person of the Trinity.  In a sense this is true, but it is also an exaltation, according to many texts, including some from John:  7:39; 12:16, etc.

[I] Why is the name manifested in particular, and what does this mean?  Hmmm . . . .

[J] Here “knowing” is in the perfect tense, indicating not ongoing learning, but a present and continuing state of understanding.

[K] Interesting to speculate on where in the Fourth Gospel such statements are given to Jesus, if at all in the gospel.

[L] Note that knowing and believing here are almost synonymous here (though that is not always true in John).

[M] Interesting collapsing of the narrative time of the story.  Jesus is no longer in the world, and yet he is about to undergo a very real death in the world!

[N] Lots of textual variants here, most of them not relevant to translation, except some ambiguity about whether the text is referring to the name which was given to Jesus, or the people who were given to Jesus.  The text as it is printed is the more likely, in my opinion.

May 25 2014 Gospel Lection John 14:15-21; Comments on the Greek Text

Jn 14:15 Ἐὰν ἀγαπᾶτέ[A] με, τὰς ἐντολὰς[B] τὰς ἐμὰς τηρήσετε[C]· If you love me, you will keep my commandments;
Jn 14:16 κἀγὼ ἐρωτήσω τὸν πατέρα καὶ ἄλλον παράκλητον[D] δώσει ὑμῖν ἵνα ᾖ μεθ’ ὑμῶν εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα[E], and I will ask the Father, and he will give to you another helper to be with you into the age,
Jn 14:17 τὸ πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας, ὃ ὁ κόσμος οὐ δύναται λαβεῖν, ὅτι οὐ θεωρεῖ αὐτὸ οὐδὲ γινώσκει· ὑμεῖς γινώσκετε αὐτό, ὅτι παρ’ ὑμῖν μένει[F] καὶ ἐν[G] ὑμῖν ἔσται.[H] the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither perceives [him/her][I] nor knows [him/her].  You know [the helper] because [he/she] stays beside you and will be in/among you.
Jn 14:18 Οὐκ ἀφήσω ὑμᾶς ὀρφανούς, ἔρχομαι[J] πρὸς ὑμᾶς.[K] I will not leave you orphans; I am coming to you.
Jn 14:19 ἔτι μικρὸν καὶ ὁ κόσμος με οὐκέτι θεωρεῖ, ὑμεῖς δὲ θεωρεῖτέ[L] με, ὅτι ἐγὼ ζῶ καὶ ὑμεῖς ζήσετε.[M] Yet a little [while], and the world no longer perceives me, but you perceive me; because I am alive, you also will live.
Jn 14:20 ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ γνώσεσθε[N] ὑμεῖς ὅτι ἐγὼ ἐν τῷ πατρί μου καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐν ἐμοὶ κἀγὼ ἐν ὑμῖν. In that day, y’all will know that I am in my Father and you [are] in me and I [am] in/among you.
Jn 14:21 ὁ ἔχων τὰς ἐντολάς μου καὶ τηρῶν αὐτὰς ἐκεῖνός ἐστιν ὁ ἀγαπῶν με·[O] ὁ δὲ ἀγαπῶν με ἀγαπηθήσεται ὑπὸ τοῦ πατρός μου, κἀγὼ ἀγαπήσω αὐτὸν καὶ ἐμφανίσω αὐτῷ ἐμαυτόν. The one who has my commandments and keeps them—that is the one who loves me; and the one who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and I will manifest myself to him.

[A] Note that this love is not a one-time event, but a persistent activity, signified by the present tense.

[B] Although this is plural (“commandments” cf.  14: 21, 15:10), there is only one commandment that Jesus explicitly gives in the fourth Gospel:  to love one another (13:34, 15:12f., 17).

[C] Other MSS have an imperative here (and a few an aorist subjunctive).  There’s not so much difference between the future and the subjunctive, and the imperative is in some tension with the next verse.  Not an easy call.

[D] Here is the (edited) BDAG definition, somewhat complex, which calls into question the commonly assumed “legal representative” understanding of this word:  (παρακαλέω) originally meant in the passive sense, ‘one who is called to someone’s aid’. Accordingly Latin writers commonly rendered it, in its NT occurrences, with ‘advocatus’. But the technical mng. ‘lawyer’, ‘attorney’ is rare.  In the few places where the word is found in pre-Christian and extra-Christian lit. as well it has for the most part a more general sense: one who appears in another’s behalf, mediator, intercessor, helper. The pass. idea of παρακεκλῆσθαι retreated into the backgound, and the active idea of παρακαλεῖν took its place. Jews adopted it in this sense as a loanw. The Gk. interpreters of John’s gosp. understood it in the active sense=παρακαλῶν. In our lit. the act. sense helper, intercessor is suitable in all occurrences of the word. Christ is designated as παράκλητος: παράκλητον ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα Ἰησοῦν Χριστὸν δίκαιονwe have Jesus Christ the righteous one, who intercedes for us. The same title is implied for Christ by the ἄλλος παράκλητοςof J 14:16. It is only the Holy Spirit that is expressly called παρ.=Helper in the Fourth Gosp.: 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7.

[E] εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα is commonly translated “forever,” but this misses the eschatological connotation implicit in the phrase.

[F] In contrast to the next chapter, where the command is for us to abide/stay in and with Jesus, here the Paraclete abides/stays with us!  Divine action comes first, and is the basis for human response.

[G] When the preposition ἐν takes a plural object, it can mean either “in” or “among.”

[H] Cf. 20:22.

[I] The Greek is neuter, but “it” sounds too impersonal in English.

[J] The first of several present tenses with a futuristic tilt.

[K] It is striking how often in John the presence of the Spirit and the presence of Jesus are conflated.  It is not hard to see why the western church wanted to add the filioque clause!

[L] Cf. the same verb used with respect to the spirit two verses earlier.

[M] A very succinct statement of union with Christ!

[N] Here perception moves to knowledge.

[O] Note the inclusio with verse 15 at the beginning of this text.

May 11 2014 Gospel lection John 10:1-10; Comments on the Greek text

 

Jn 10:1 Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ὁ μὴ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τῶν προβάτων ἀλλὰ ἀναβαίνων[A] ἀλλαχόθεν ἐκεῖνος κλέπτης ἐστὶν καὶ λῃστής· Amen, amen, I tell you, the one who does not enter through the gate into the courtyard of the sheep, but who goes up from another place—that one is a thief and a bandit.
Jn 10:2 ὁ δὲ εἰσερχόμενος διὰ τῆς θύρας ποιμήν ἐστιν τῶν προβάτων. But the one entering through the gate is [the] shepherd of the sheep.
Jn 10:3 τούτῳ ὁ θυρωρὸς ἀνοίγει, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τῆς φωνῆς[B] αὐτοῦ ἀκούει καὶ τὰ ἴδια πρόβατα φωνεῖ κατ’ ὄνομα[C] καὶ ἐξάγει αὐτά. To this one the doorkeeper opens, and the sheep hear his voice and he calls [his] own sheep by name and leads them out.
Jn 10:4 ὅταν τὰ ἴδια πάντα ἐκβάλῃ[D], ἔμπροσθεν αὐτῶν πορεύεται, καὶ τὰ πρόβατα αὐτῷ ἀκολουθεῖ, ὅτι οἴδασιν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτοῦ· When he has driven out all his own, he goes before them, and the sheep follow him, because they know his voice.
Jn 10:5 ἀλλοτρίῳ δὲ οὐ μὴ[E] ἀκολουθήσουσιν ἀλλὰ φεύξονται ἀπ’ αὐτοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδασι τῶν ἀλλοτρίων τὴν φωνήν. But they will surely not follow another, but will flee from him, because they do not know the voice of others.
Jn 10:6 ταύτην τὴν παροιμίαν εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· ἐκεῖνοι δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τίνα ἦν ἃ ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς.[F] Jesus told this saying to them, but they didn’t know what it was that he was saying to them.
Jn 10:7 Εἶπεν οὖν πάλιν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα[G] τῶν προβάτων. Then again Jesus said to them, “Amen, amen I tell you, I am the gate of the sheep.
Jn 10:8 πάντες ὅσοι ἦλθον [πρὸ ἐμοῦ[H]] κλέπται εἰσὶν καὶ λῃσταί· ἀλλ’ οὐκ ἤκουσαν[I] αὐτῶν τὰ πρόβατα. All who came before me are thieves and bandits, but the sheep did not listen to them.
Jn 10:9 ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ θύρα· δι’ ἐμοῦ ἐάν τις εἰσέλθῃ σωθήσεται καὶ εἰσελεύσεται καὶ ἐξελεύσεται καὶ νομὴν εὑρήσει. I am the door; through me, if anyone enters [he or she] will be saved, and will go in and come out and find pasture.
Jn 10:10 ὁ κλέπτης οὐκ ἔρχεται εἰ μὴ ἵνα κλέψῃ καὶ θύσῃ καὶ ἀπολέσῃ· ἐγὼ ἦλθον ἵνα ζωὴν ἔχωσιν καὶ περισσὸν ἔχωσιν. The thief doesn’t come except to kill and slaughter and destroy; I came so that they might have life and have [it] in abundance.

[A] More literally, “ascends,” recalling the recurring emphasis on John on Jesus as the one who “descends” from God, rather than ascending to God (cf. John 3:13; 6:33, 38, 41f., 50f., 58).  Metaphorically and in an expanded meaning, this “thief” who “ascends” from another place may refer to a revealer who does not “ascend” from the cross, in the way that Jesus would do, but pursues a self-preserving and enhancing path.  That’s why such a one is a thief.

[B]Remember that ἀκούω takes its object either in the accusative or in the genitive case.  When it takes the accusative, it speaks of “hearing about” in a more general way.  When it takes the genitive, it speaks of “hearing from” in a more direct way.  That’s what we see here.

[C] One of the most powerful images in Scripture is this sense of being called “by name” by God.

[D] A surprisingly strong verb—the same verb used when Jesus “drives out” demons.  Perhaps an allusion to the expulsion from the synagogue mentioned elsewhere in John (9:22, 12:42, 16:2)

[E] One would expect the aorist subjunctive after this οὐ μὴ construction, signifying emphatic future denial, and some MSS have this reading, but the more difficult reading (and thus the more likely original) is the future indicative—somewhat grammatically incorrect.

[F] Reinforcing the sense that there are multiple layers of meaning here, as I’ve tried to suggest in some of these notes.

[G] Now Jesus not only enters through the gate, but he is the gate!  Interesting morphing of the image.

[H] It is unclear whether “before me” was included in the original manuscript.  Was it deleted because it seemed to disparage all Old Testament revelation, or was it added to clarify an ambiguous sentence without it?  Hard to say—either solution is problematic.

[I] Or “the sheep did not hear them.”  Is the difference that they failed to speak comprehensibly to the sheep, or that the sheep refused to listen?  Hmm . . . .

Epistle Lection, May 4, 2014 1 Peter 1:17-23; Comments on the Greek text.

1Pe 1:17 Καὶ εἰ πατέρα ἐπικαλεῖσθε τὸν ἀπροσωπολήμπτως κρίνοντα κατὰ τὸ ἑκάστου ἔργον, ἐν φόβῳ[A] τὸν τῆς παροικίας[B] ὑμῶν χρόνον ἀναστράφητε· And if you call upon as “Father” the one who judges impartially, according to the work of each one, live out the season of your exile in fear;
1Pe 1:18 εἰδότες ὅτι οὐ φθαρτοῖς, ἀργυρίῳ ἢ χρυσίῳ, ἐλυτρώθητε ἐκ τῆς ματαίας[C] ὑμῶν ἀναστροφῆς πατροπαραδότου, knowing that you were ransomed from your worthless conduct inherited from [the] ancestors, not with corruptible [things,] with gold or silver,
1Pe 1:19 ἀλλὰ τιμίῳ αἵματι ὡς ἀμνοῦ ἀμώμου καὶ ἀσπίλου Χριστοῦ, but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of an unblemished and spotless lamb.
1Pe 1:20 προεγνωσμένου[D] μὲν πρὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, φανερωθέντος δὲ ἐπ’ ἐσχάτου τῶν χρόνων δι’ ὑμᾶς [Christ was] foreknown before the foundation of the world, but manifested at the end of the times because of us,
1Pe 1:21 τοὺς δι’ αὐτοῦ πιστοὺς[E] εἰς θεὸν τὸν ἐγείραντα αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν καὶ δόξαν αὐτῷ δόντα, ὥστε τὴν πίστιν ὑμῶν καὶ ἐλπίδα εἶναι εἰς θεόν. who through him are faithful to [the] God who raised him from the dead and gave him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.
1Pe 1:22 Τὰς ψυχὰς ὑμῶν ἡγνικότες ἐν[F] τῇ ὑπακοῇ τῆς ἀληθείας εἰς φιλαδελφίαν[G] ἀνυπόκριτον ἐκ καρδίας ἀλλήλους ἀγαπήσατε ἐκτενῶς, Having cleansed your souls in the obedience of truth for a sincere love of the brothers [and sisters], love one another fervently, from [the] heart.
1Pe 1:23 ἀναγεγεννημένοι οὐκ ἐκ σπορᾶς φθαρτῆς ἀλλὰ ἀφθάρτου, διὰ λόγου ζῶντος θεοῦ καὶ μένοντος· Since you have been born anew, not from corruptible seed but from incorruptible [seed], through [the] living and abiding Word of God.

[A] Or “reverence” or “awe.”

[B] The sense is being in a strange locale without benefit of citizenship.

[C] “worthless,” “vain” or “empty”

[D] Or possible “chosen beforehand.”

[E] or “who through him have come to believe in the God . . .”

[F] or “by”

[G] Interesting that the entire purpose of the purification of souls is here defined as a “sincere love of the brothers and sisters.”

Gospel Lection, April 27, 2014, John 20:19-31; Comments on the Greek text

Jn 20:19 Οὔσης οὖν ὀψίας τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἐκείνῃ τῇ μιᾷ σαββάτων, καὶ τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων ὅπου ἦσαν οἱ μαθηταὶ διὰ τὸν φόβον τῶν Ἰουδαίων[A], ἦλθεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον, καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν[B]. Then, when it was evening on that day, the first of the week, and the doors [were] locked where the disciples were, because of the fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood in the midst, and says to them, “Peace to you!”
Jn 20:20 καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἔδειξεν τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῖς. ἐχάρησαν οὖν οἱ μαθηταὶ ἰδόντες τὸν κύριον. And having said this, he showed them  the hands and the side.  Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord.
Jn 20:21 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς πάλιν· Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν· καθὼς ἀπέσταλκέν με ὁ πατήρ[C], κἀγὼ πέμπω ὑμᾶς. So Jesus said to them again, “Peace to you.  As the Father has sent me, I also send you.”
Jn 20:22 καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν ἐνεφύσησεν[D] καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς· Λάβετε πνεῦμα ἅγιον[E]· And having said this, he breathed on [them] and says to them, “Receive Holy Spirit.
Jn 20:23 ἄν τινων ἀφῆτε[F] τὰς ἁμαρτίας ἀφέωνται αὐτοῖς· ἄν τινων κρατῆτε κεκράτηνται. Whoever’s sins you forgive have been forgiven for them; whoever’s you hold have been held.”
Jn 20:24 Θωμᾶς δὲ εἷς ἐκ τῶν δώδεκα, ὁ λεγόμενος Δίδυμος, οὐκ ἦν μετ’ αὐτῶν ὅτε ἦλθεν Ἰησοῦς. But Thomas,  one of the twelve, the one called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.
Jn 20:25 ἔλεγον οὖν αὐτῷ οἱ ἄλλοι μαθηταί· Ἑωράκαμεν τὸν κύριον. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς· Ἐὰν μὴ ἴδω ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτοῦ τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων καὶ βάλω[G] τὸν δάκτυλόν μου εἰς τὸν τύπον τῶν ἥλων καὶ βάλω μου τὴν χεῖρα εἰς τὴν πλευρὰν αὐτοῦ, οὐ μὴ πιστεύσω[H]. Then the other disciples were saying to him, “We have seen the Lord.”  But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails and stick my finger into the mark of the nails and stick my hand into his side, I will surely not believe.”
Jn 20:26 Καὶ μεθ’ ἡμέρας ὀκτὼ πάλιν ἦσαν ἔσω οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ Θωμᾶς μετ’ αὐτῶν. ἔρχεται ὁ Ἰησοῦς τῶν θυρῶν κεκλεισμένων, καὶ ἔστη εἰς τὸ μέσον καὶ εἶπεν· Εἰρήνη ὑμῖν. And after eight days again his disciples were inside, and Thomas [was] with them.  Jesus comes (the doors being shut) and stood in [their] midst and said “Peace to you.”
Jn 20:27 εἶτα λέγει τῷ Θωμᾷ· Φέρε τὸν δάκτυλόν σου ὧδε καὶ ἴδε τὰς χεῖράς μου, καὶ φέρε τὴν χεῖρά σου καὶ βάλε εἰς τὴν πλευράν μου, καὶ μὴ γίνου[I] ἄπιστος ἀλλὰ πιστός[J]. Then he says to Thomas, “Bring your finger here and see my hands, and bring your hand and stick [it] into my side, and stop being faithless, but [instead be] faithful.
Jn 20:28 ἀπεκρίθη Θωμᾶς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ· Ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου.[K] Thomas answered and said to him, “My Lord and my God!”
Jn 20:29 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Ἰησοῦς· Ὅτι ἑώρακάς με πεπίστευκας; μακάριοι οἱ μὴ ἰδόντες καὶ πιστεύσαντες.[L] Jesus says to him, “Have you believed because you have seen me?  Blessed [are] the ones who, not seeing, also have believed.”
Jn 20:30 Πολλὰ μὲν οὖν καὶ ἄλλα σημεῖα ἐποίησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἐνώπιον τῶν μαθητῶν, ἃ οὐκ ἔστιν γεγραμμένα ἐν τῷ βιβλίῳ τούτῳ·[M] So Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples which are not written in this book;
Jn 20:31 ταῦτα δὲ γέγραπται ἵνα πιστεύητε[N] ὅτι Ἰησοῦς[O] ἐστιν ὁ χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ ἵνα πιστεύοντες ζωὴν ἔχητε ἐν τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ. but these are written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.

 

 

[A] It’s worth doing a scan on the places where the phrase “fear of the Jews” shows up throughout John.  Some commentators suggest translating “Judeans” rather than “Jews,” since the whole gospel itself has a strongly Jewish tone, and the fear seems to be directed primarily toward the religious authorities (centered in Judea).

[B] A simple form of “Hello” in Aramaic.

[C] Another interesting study would be to explore all the earlier texts in John where the Father is said to have sent Jesus.  What exactly is it about the Father’s sending of Jesus that is replicated in the Son’s sending of the disciples?  That’s an important key to interpreting this text.  The immediate context suggest at least two dimensions:  The ministry of the disciples, like that of Jesus, is done in the power of the Holy Spirit, and involves the forgiveness of sins.

[D] It’s interesting that the one on whom Jesus breathes (them) is not explicitly mentioned in the text.  Perhaps because all of us are included in this “Johannine Pentecost”?

[E] The absence of the definite article leaves it unclear how “definite” or personalized this use of “Holy Spirit” is.

[F] Are we to envision any sort of sin here, or sins against the disciples in particular?  I would suggest that the latter is in view.  It is specifically when the disciples forgive their own enemies that they are acting like God, in the power of the Spirit.

[G] Literally “throw” my finger into the mark, etc.!

[H] οὐ μὴ + the aorist subjunctive = emphatic future denial!

[I] μὴ + a present imperative = stop doing an action already in process.

[J] The same word can mean either “faithful” or “believing.”  In john, the two are intimately related.

[K] Note that Thomas apparently doesn’t take Jesus up on the offer to actually put his finger in the wounds, or his hand in Jesus’ side.  Note that Thomas says this αὐτῷ, to him (i.e. to Jesus), and not as a general acclamation of faith in God.

[L] This includes, of course, all the readers of the gospel!

[M] An interesting acknowledgement on the part of the author that this gospel is selective in its recounting of the story.

[N] There’s a crucial textual variant here.  Is it the aorist “come to believe” or the present “continue to believe”?  Textual evidence is pretty evenly divided.  Some assume that the intended readership is centrally at stake here—either non-Christians, who are expected to “come to believe” (aorist) or existing Christians, who are invited to “continue to believe” (present).  But I think this may be overdrawn, and the envisioned audience may include both sorts of readers.  Consider the dual use of “believe” in John 4:50 and 53.  If he believed the first time, why the second mention?  But for John, believing is a never-ending journey, deeper and deeper into mystery.  That’s why I would differentiate too sharply between the present and the aorist here.

[O] Some commentators suggest that this verse should be rendered “that you may believe that the Christ, the Son of God, is Jesus,” assuming agreement on “Christ, Son of God” in a Jewish context, but focusing on identifying Jesus in this role.  The presence and absence of the definite articles favors such a reading, though this is not decisive, since the articles could be there because these are titles.  But I find it hard to believe that John assumes that his readers already know what “Christ” and “Son of God” mean, and simply have to link these categories to Jesus.  In fact, Nicodemus exclaims Jesus as “King of Israel” and Son of God” in 1:49, before he has seen much of anything!  There is far too much energy devoted in John to expanding and expounding on these terms to assume that the author takes them for granted and simply assumes his readers already understand them.