July 13 2014 Epistle lection Romans 8:1ff.; Comments on the Greek text

I have been doing these commentaries on the Greek text of the lectionary as part of my sabbatical discipline.  Now that my sabbatical is finished, I probably will not continue these, at least as regularly.  I hope you have found them helpful.

Ro 8:1 Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα[A] τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· [There is] therefore now nothing [by way of] condemnation for those in Christ Jesus.
Ro 8:2 ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος[B] τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε[C] ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus freed you from the law of sin and of death.
Ro 8:3 τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου[D], ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινε[E] τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί,[F] For what was impossible from the law, in that it was weakened through the flesh, God [did], having sent his own Son in the likeness of [the] flesh of sin and for sin, [God] condemned sin in the flesh,
Ro 8:4 ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα·[G] in order that the requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk, not according to flesh, but according to Spirit.
Ro 8:5 οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν, οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος.[H] For those who are according to flesh think the things of the flesh, and those who are according to Spirit [think] the things of the Spirit.
Ro 8:6 τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα[I] τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· For the mindset of the flesh [is] death, but the mindset of the Spirit [is] life and peace.
Ro 8:7 διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν,[J] τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται, οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται· Because the mindset of the flesh is hostility toward God; for it does not submit to the law of God—for it is not even able [to do so].
Ro 8:8 οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται. And those who are in flesh are not able to please God.
Ro 8:9 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν[K] ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ. But y’all are not in flesh, but in Spirit, if indeed [the][L] Spirit of God dwells in/among y’all.  But if someone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, this one is not his [i.e. Christ’s].
Ro 8:10 εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν[M], τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ[N] διὰ δικαιοσύνην. But if Christ [is] in/among y’all, on the one hand, the body is dead because of sin, but the Spirit is life because of righteousness.
Ro 8:11 εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ[O] τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα ἐν ὑμῖν. But if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from [the] dead dwells in/among y’all, the one who raised Christ Jesus from [the] dead will make alive also the mortal bodies of y’all because of his Spirit indwelling in/among y’all.

[A] Or “Therefore nothing is now condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.”

[B] Categorizing the genitives is not easy here.  This seems to be a genitive of source, but the next one—the law of sin and death—seems to be a law which results in sin and death.  Of perhaps both are genitives of source:  the law which flows from Christ, and the law which flows from sin and death.  But neither is without its problems.

[C] Some textual uncertainty about whether this should be “you” or “me.” (Note that the “you” here—if that is the reading—is singular. This is the only singular form of “you” in this passage.)

[D] Or “the incapability of the law”

[E] The imperfect and aorist forms are indistinguishable here.

[F] Presumably by putting Jesus to death.

[G] Given the strongly substutionary language here, one might expect “in order that the requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us who are joined to Christ,” but the focus on the Spirit instead is noteworthy (though note how this gets fused with union with Christ in verses 9-11 of this passage).

[H] In other words, patterns of thinking follow patterns of being.

[I] Note the semantic link with φρονοῦσιν in the previous verse.  The –μα suffix attached to nouns indicates the concrete results of a verbal action.  So the φρόνημα envisions the concrete results of a way of thinking.

[J] Cf. James 4:4.

[K] I’ve translated “in/among” because either is lexically possible, and I want to push a bit on the tendency to over-individualize this passage.

[L] One could also certainly render this, “if indeed a Spirit from God dwells in/among y’all.”

[M] Note how, in this verse and the one preceding, the text moves from “Spirit” to “Spirit of God,” to “Spirit of Christ” to “Christ,” treating all these terms as, at least in some important sense, referring to the same reality.

[N] Note how the two phrases are not entirely parallel:  the earlier clause uses an adjective (“dead” νεκρὸν) but the second phrase uses a noun (“life” ζωὴ).

[O] There is a noteworthy textual variant here that has to do with whether the object of this preposition is in the accusative case or the genitive case.  This particular text puts it into the accusative case, making the meaning “because of his Spirit dwelling in/among y’all,” but many other manuscripts (and the UBS4) read it in the genitive:  “through his Spirit dwelling in/among y’all.”  Metzger favors the latter reading, pointing to the diversity of textual witnesses that have “through.”

June 29, 2014 Epistle and Gospel lections; comments on the Greek text

Ro 6:12 Μὴ οὖν βασιλευέτω[A] ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θνητῷ ὑμῶν σώματι εἰς[B] τὸ ὑπακούειν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις αὐτοῦ, Therefore sin must not reign in your mortal bodies resulting in obeying its passions.
Ro 6:13 μηδὲ παριστάνετε[C] τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα[D] ἀδικίας τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, ἀλλὰ παραστήσατε ἑαυτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ὡσεὶ ἐκ νεκρῶν ζῶντας καὶ τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν ὅπλα δικαιοσύνης τῷ θεῷ. And stop offering your body parts [as] tools of unrighteousness to sin, but offer yourselves to God as alive from [the] dead, and your body parts [as] tools of righteousness to God.
Ro 6:14 ἁμαρτία γὰρ ὑμῶν οὐ κυριεύσει[E], οὐ γάρ ἐστε ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν. For sin will not rule you, for you are not under law, but under grace.
Ro 6:15 Τί οὖν; ἁμαρτήσωμεν[F] ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν;[G] μὴ γένοιτο· What then?  Shall we sin because we are not under law but under grace?  No way!
Ro 6:16 οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην;[H] Don’t you know that to whom[ever] you present yourselves as slaves for obedience, you are slaves to the one whom you obey, either [slaves of] sin [which leads] to death or of obedience [which leads] to righteousness?
Ro 6:17 χάρις[I] δὲ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον[J] διδαχῆς, But thanks [be] to God that you were slaves of sin, but you obeyed from [the] heart [the] pattern of teaching into which you were handed over.
Ro 6:18 ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐδουλώθητε[K] τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ· And having been freed from sin, you were enslaved to righteousness.
Ro 6:19 ἀνθρώπινον[L] λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν, οὕτως νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα[M] τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν. I am speaking humanly because of the weakness of your flesh; for just as you presented your body parts [as] slaves to impurity and to lawlessness resulting in lawlessness, so now present your body parts [as] slaves to righteousness, resulting in sanctification.
Ro 6:20 Ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι[N] ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free with respect to righteousness.
Ro 6:21 τίνα οὖν καρπὸν[O] εἴχετε τότε ἐφ’ οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; τὸ γὰρ τέλος[P] ἐκείνων θάνατος· What result were you having then, because of which [things] you are now ashamed?  For the end of those [things] is death.
Ro 6:22 νυνὶ δέ, ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. But now, having been freed from sin, and having become enslaved to God, you have your result [moving] into sanctification, and [its] end, eternal life.
Ro 6:23 τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας[Q] θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα[R] τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. For the compensation paid by sin is death, but the gift of God is life eternal in Christ Jesus our Lord.
Mt 10:40 Ὁ δεχόμενος ὑμᾶς ἐμὲ δέχεται, καὶ ὁ ἐμὲ δεχόμενος δέχεται τὸν ἀποστείλαντά με. The one who welcomes you welcomes me, and the one who welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me.
Mt 10:41 ὁ δεχόμενος προφήτην εἰς ὄνομα προφήτου[S] μισθὸν προφήτου λήμψεται, καὶ ὁ δεχόμενος δίκαιον εἰς ὄνομα δικαίου μισθὸν δικαίου λήμψεται. The one who welcomes a prophet in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward; and the one who welcomes a righteous person  in the name of a righteous person will receive the reward of a righteous person.
Mt 10:42 καὶ ὃς ἂν ποτίσῃ ἕνα τῶν μικρῶν τούτων ποτήριον ψυχροῦ μόνον εἰς ὄνομα μαθητοῦ, ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐ μὴ ἀπολέσῃ[T] τὸν μισθὸν αὐτοῦ. And whoever gives a drink [of] a cup of cold [water to] one of these little ones in the name of a disciple—truly I tell you, he [or she] will surely not lose his [or her] reward.

[A] A third-person imperative.  We don’t have this in English, so it’s hard to render.  “Don’t let sin reign” sounds like a command that is given to us, but that’s not what the text is saying.  My translation is an attempt to get at the sense.

[B] This preposition with an infinitive usually expresses purposes, but result seems to make more sense here, and is grammatically possible.

[C] A negative with a present imperative usually suggests ceasing an action that is already underway, usually in a continuous, repeated, or habitual manner.

[D] The more generic “tools” seems to fit better than a focus on military usage with “weapons.”

[E] Note it’s a future, not an imperative.  A simple statement of fact!

[F] Deliberative aorist subjunctive.

[G] Apparently a fairly common question Paul had to deal with!  It seems to be the concern dominating this whole section.

[H] A radically different anthropology from our culture’s idolization of individual freedom!

[I] See BDAG section 5 for this meaning.

[J] See BDAG section 4 for this meaning.  It’s interesting that the obedience of faith does not focus centrally on particular forms of obedience, but rather on a pattern of teaching.

[K] In this sense, at least, radical freedom is not a possibility.

[L] Neuter accusative singular form indicates adverbial usage.

[M] In other words, your body parts don’t make decisions on their own—they serve some larger purpose.  The only question is which purpose they will serve?

[N] (Apparently) free in the sense that there was no understood or lived-out obligation with respect to righteousness.

[O] Literally “what fruit?”

[P] “end” in the sense of goal or target toward which they are moving.  It’s important to recognize these two basic categories—actions have “fruit” or “results” in the near term, and an “end” or “goal” in the long run.

[Q] My translation reads this as a genitive of source.

[R] Note the central contrast here between compensation and gift.  This remains a core reality, despite the passage’s critique of absolute notions of freedom.

[S] Most commentators read “in the name of a prophet” in the sense of “because he or she is a prophet,” or “as a prophet.”  And similarly below.

[T] οὐ μὴ + aorist subjunctive = emphatic future denial.

June 22 2014 Epistle lection, Rom 6:1-11; Comments on the Greek Text

Ro 6:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ἐπιμένωμεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ[A], ἵνα ἡ χάρις πλεονάσῃ;[B] What then shall we say?  Shall we persist with respect to sin, so that grace may abound?
Ro 6:2 μὴ γένοιτο· οἵτινες ἀπεθάνομεν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ,[C] πῶς ἔτι ζήσομεν ἐν αὐτῇ; No way!  How shall we, who died with respect to sin, still live in it?
Ro 6:3 ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε ὅτι ὅσοι ἐβαπτίσθημεν[D] εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν;[E] Or are you ignorant that all [of us] who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death?
Ro 6:4 συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. So we were buried with him through baptism into death, in order that just as Christ was raised from [the] dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life.
Ro 6:5 Εἰ γὰρ σύμφυτοι[F] γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι[G] τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἐσόμεθα· For if we have become identified with the likeness of his death, all the more will we also [be identified with the likeness] of his resurrection.
Ro 6:6 τοῦτο γινώσκοντες ὅτι ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος[H] συνεσταυρώθη, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας, τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, Knowing this, that our old person was crucified together [with him], so that the body of sin might be set aside, so that we might no longer be enslaved to sin.
Ro 6:7 ὁ γὰρ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται[I] ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας. For the one who died has been justified away from sin.
Ro 6:8 εἰ δὲ ἀπεθάνομεν σὺν Χριστῷ, πιστεύομεν ὅτι καὶ συζήσομεν[J] αὐτῷ· But if we died with Christ, we believe that we also will live together with him,
Ro 6:9 εἰδότες ὅτι Χριστὸς ἐγερθεὶς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὐκέτι ἀποθνῄσκει, θάνατος αὐτοῦ[K] οὐκέτι κυριεύει· knowing that Christ, having been raised from [the] dead, no longer dies; death no longer rules him.
Ro 6:10 ὃ[L] γὰρ ἀπέθανεν, τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀπέθανεν ἐφάπαξ· ὃ δὲ ζῇ, ζῇ τῷ θεῷ. What he died, he died to sin once for all; but what he lives, he lives to God.
Ro 6:11 οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς λογίζεσθε[M] ἑαυτοὺς εἶναι νεκροὺς μὲν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ζῶντας δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. So you also—think about yourselves being dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus.

[A] The dative of respect is not easy to translate.  These sense is something like “shall we remain in relationship to sin?”

[B] Recalling 5:20b.

[C] Cf. Gal 2:19, where Paul uses the same sort of construction to speak of dying to the law.

[D] Note that it’s first person plural, not third person.  Hence the “[of us]” in brackets in the translation.

[E] Note the interesting chiastic structure of this verse:


εἰς Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν

εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ


[F] Literally “grown together with”

[G] For some interesting parallels in Paul for this word, cf. Rom. 1:23, Rom. 5:14, Rom. 8:3, Phil. 2:7.

[H] The word does not exactly mean “self” as the NRSV, NIV, and many others render it. The focus is not individualistic, but collective, particularly in light of the discussion of Adam and Christ in the previous chapter.

[I] A somewhat surprising word here—lots of stuff in the commentaries about this.

[J] Note the future tense—this is a reference to resurrection which has not yet happened in Paul’s framework.

[K] The verb κυριεύω takes its object in the genitive case.

[L] Probably an accusative of respect, since this verb can’t take a direct object.  “With respect to what he died . . .”  That’s where some translations get “in that.”

[M] Present imperative connotes ongoing, habitual, or repeated action.  The verb carries the sense of adding up a column of figures, and coming to a result.

April 6 2014, Epistle Lection Rom 8:6-11

April 6 2014, Epistle Lection

Rom 8:6-11

Note—again the gospel lection was too long for a translation this week, so I’ll only provide this one.

Ro 8:6 τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα[A] τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος, τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος[B] ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη· For the mind of the flesh [is] death, but the mind of the Spirit is life and peace.
Ro 8:7 διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα[C] εἰς θεόν, τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ[D] τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται[E], οὐδὲ[F] γὰρ δύναται· Because the mind of the flesh is enmity toward God; it does not submit to the law of God, nor is it able [to do so].
Ro 8:8 οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.[G] And those in [the] flesh are not able to please God.
Ro 8:9 Ὑμεῖς δὲ οὐκ ἐστὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ἀλλὰ ἐν πνεύματι, εἴπερ[H] πνεῦμα θεοῦ οἰκεῖ ἐν ὑμῖν. εἰ δέ τις πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ[I] οὐκ ἔχει, οὗτος οὐκ ἔστιν αὐτοῦ. But y’all are not in [the] flesh, but in [the] Spirit, if indeed [the] Spirit of God dwells in y’all.  If anyone does not have [the] Spirit of Christ, this one is not His [i.e. Christ’s].
Ro 8:10 εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς ἐν ὑμῖν[J], τὸ μὲν σῶμα νεκρὸν διὰ ἁμαρτίαν, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωὴ διὰ δικαιοσύνην. But if Christ [is] in y’all;, on the one hand, the body is dead because of sin, but the spirit is life because of righteousness.
Ro 8:11 εἰ δὲ τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ ἐγείραντος τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἐκ νεκρῶν οἰκεῖ ἐν[K] ὑμῖν, ὁ ἐγείρας ἐκ νεκρῶν Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν ζῳοποιήσει καὶ τὰ θνητὰ σώματα ὑμῶν διὰ[L] τὸ ἐνοικοῦν αὐτοῦ πνεῦμα ἐν ὑμῖν. And if the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from [the] dead dwells in y’all, the one who raised Christ from the dead will also make alive y’all’s mortal bodies because of his spirit dwelling in y’all.

[A] Or “way of thinking,” “mindset.”

[B] I’ve capitalized “Spirit” in the translation, since the earlier verses seem clearly to be referring to the Holy Spirit.

[C] Or “hostility”

[D] It’s a little surprising to see Paul use “law” here without qualification, since Paul doesn’t regard all of the written law as obligatory for Gentiles.  One might have expected “will” or “purpose” or some such word.  Or Paul may have the thought of Rom 5:13 in mind here.

[E] Present tense denotes continuous, repeated, or habitual action.

[F] Or “For it is not even able [to do so].”

[G] The logical consequence of the previous verse.

[H] Or “since.”

[I] Note the ways in which Paul uses “Spirit of God” and “Spirit of Christ” almost interchangeably here.

[J] Note the way in which the indwelling of the Spirit (in the previous verse) is made equivalent to the indwelling of Christ himself.  Yet in v. 11, if is the Spirit of the one who raised Jesus from the dead who indwells y’all.  Lots of Trinitarian material here!

[K] Could also be “among y’all,” (also elsewhere where the Greek text reads ἐν ὑμῖν), though the flow of the text as a whole suggests that individuals are at least to some extent in view—note the singulars in verses 9b and 10b of this text.

[L] Other manuscripts have the object of this preposition in the genitive, rather than the accusative, making the meaning of this preposition “through” rather than “because of” as I have rendered in the translation of the accusative object found in the SBL Geek text.

Epistle Lection, March 16 2014 Romans 4:1-4, 13-17; Comments on the Greek Text

Epistle Lection, March 16 2014

Romans 4:1-4, 13-17; Comments on the Greek Text

Ro 4:1 Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν εὑρηκέναι Ἀβραὰμ τὸν προπάτορα ἡμῶν κατὰ σάρκα[A]; What then shall we say Abraham found—our forefather according to the flesh?
Ro 4:2 εἰ γὰρ Ἀβραὰμ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη, ἔχει καύχημα· ἀλλ’ οὐ πρὸς θεόν, For if Abraham was justified from works, he has a boast, but not before/toward God.
Ro 4:3 τί γὰρ ἡ γραφὴ λέγει; Ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἀβραὰμ τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλογίσθη[B] αὐτῷ εἰς[C] δικαιοσύνην. For what does the Scripture say?  “Abraham believed God, and it was counted for him as righteousness.”
Ro 4:4 τῷ δὲ ἐργαζομένῳ ὁ μισθὸς[D] οὐ λογίζεται κατὰ χάριν ἀλλὰ κατὰ ὀφείλημα· But for the one who works, the wage is not counted according to grace, but according to obligation.
Ro 4:5 τῷ δὲ μὴ ἐργαζομένῳ, πιστεύοντι δὲ ἐπὶ τὸν δικαιοῦντα τὸν ἀσεβῆ[E], λογίζεται ἡ πίστις αὐτοῦ εἰς δικαιοσύνην, But for the one who does not work, but who trusts on the one who justifies the ungodly, his [or her] faith is counted as righteousness.
Ro 4:13 Οὐ γὰρ διὰ νόμου ἡ ἐπαγγελία τῷ Ἀβραὰμ ἢ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ, τὸ[F] κληρονόμον αὐτὸν εἶναι κόσμου, ἀλλὰ διὰ δικαιοσύνης πίστεως[G]· For [it was] not through law [that] the promise [came] to Abraham or to his seed, [that] he [would] be [the] heir of the world, but through [the] righteousness of faith.
Ro 4:14 εἰ γὰρ οἱ ἐκ νόμου κληρονόμοι, κεκένωται ἡ πίστις καὶ κατήργηται[H] ἡ ἐπαγγελία· For if the heirs [are] from [the] law, faith has been emptied and the promise has been wiped out.
Ro 4:15 ὁ γὰρ νόμος ὀργὴν κατεργάζεται[I], οὗ δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος, οὐδὲ παράβασις. For the law accomplishes wrath, but where there is no law, neither [is there] transgression.
Ro 4:16 Διὰ τοῦτο ἐκ πίστεως,[J] ἵνα κατὰ χάριν, εἰς τὸ εἶναι βεβαίαν τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν παντὶ τῷ σπέρματι, οὐ τῷ ἐκ τοῦ νόμου μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ τῷ ἐκ πίστεως Ἀβραάμ (ὅς ἐστιν πατὴρ πάντων ἡμῶν, For this reason [righteousness/promise comes] from faith, so that it [might be] according to grace, so that the promise might be secure to all the seed, not to the [one] who [lives] from the law only, but also to the one [who lives] from the faith of Abraham, (who is father of all of us,
Ro 4:17 καθὼς γέγραπται ὅτι Πατέρα πολλῶν ἐθνῶν[K] τέθεικά σε), κατέναντι οὗ ἐπίστευσεν θεοῦ τοῦ ζῳοποιοῦντος τοὺς νεκροὺς καὶ καλοῦντος τὰ μὴ ὄντα ὡς ὄντα[L]· as it is written, “I have appointed you [as] father of many nations/Gentiles,) in the presence of the God whom he trusted—the God who makes the dead come to life and calls the things that do not exist as if they do exist.

[A] The phrase could be adjectival (not just any forefather, but our forefather according to the flesh), or adverbial (What did Abraham our forefather find according to the flesh?)  Word order favors the former, but the latter is possible, and avoids the seeming oddity of Paul suddenly seeming to address only Jews.

[B] The more traditional translation is “reckoned.”  The word comes from the world of accounting.  That’s why I used “counted.”

[C] Or perhaps more literally “counted for him into righteousness.”

[D] The word can have the connotation of reward (beyond what is earned) or simply what is earned.  It may be better to translate simply “payment.”

[E] A surprising word here.  Paul has spoken earlier in chap. 3 of the justification of those who were not themselves righteous in their behavior, but implicitly identifying Abraham as one of the “ungodly” is a bit shocking here.  Cf. Rom 5:6.

[F] The article goes with the infinitive (thus neuter), not with the masculine κληρονόμον.

[G] Either a genitive of origin (the righteousness that comes from faith) or an appositional genitive (the righteousness that is faith.)

[H] Both verbs are perfect tense, indicating a continuing state which is the result of a prior action.

[I] See Rom 3:9ff.

[J] The subject is unstated.  “Promise” is suggested by its use later in the verse, but “righteousness” seems more like to come from faith.  The promise doesn’t originate in our faith, but in God’s free gift.  Nor is the giving of the promise dependent on faith, but only its reception.

[K] Note in Greek that this word could be translated either “nations” or “gentiles.”

[L] Literally, “calls the things not being as being.”  The “if” in my translation is interpretative.

March 9 2014 Epistle Lectionary, First Sunday in Lent; Romans 5:12-19

March 9 2014 Epistle Lectionary, First Sunday in Lent

Romans 5:12-19

Ro 5:12 Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ δι’ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος, καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν ἐφ’ ᾧ[A] πάντες ἥμαρτον— Therefore, just as through one person sin entered into the world, and through sin, death [entered into the world,] and thus death spread to all people, because of which all sinned—
Ro 5:13 ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ, ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται[B] μὴ ὄντος νόμου, For until the law [came], sin was in [the] world, but sin is not reckoned when law does not exist.
Ro 5:14 ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος[C] ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι[D] τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος. But death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned after the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of the coming one.
Ro 5:15 Ἀλλ’ οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως καὶ τὸ χάρισμα[E]· εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι[F] οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον, πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν. But the gift is not like the transgression.  For if by the transgression of the one, the many died, by how much more did the grace of God and the gift abound in [the] grace of the one human, Jesus Christ, to the many?
Ro 5:16 καὶ οὐχ ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος τὸ δώρημα· τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς κατάκριμα, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα ἐκ[G] πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων εἰς δικαίωμα. And the gift was not like [what came] through the one who sinned.  On the one hand, the judgment [came] from one resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand, the gift, after many transgressions, results in righteousness.
Ro 5:17 εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν διὰ τοῦ ἑνός, πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ τῆς δωρεᾶς[H] τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. For if, by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, by how much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life through the one Jesus Christ?
Ro 5:18 Ἄρα οὖν ὡς δι’ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα, οὕτως καὶ δι’ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς·[I] So then, just as, [death/sin came] through one transgression, to all people, resulting in condemnation, so also [the gift came] through one righteous act, to all people, resulting in righteousness of life.
Ro 5:19 ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί, οὕτως καὶ διὰ τῆς ὑπακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί.[J] for just as, though the disobedience of the one person, many were caused [to be] sinners, so also through the obedience of the one, the many will be caused to be righteous.

[A] A notoriously difficult prepositional phrase to render here.  One question has to do with the antecedent of the relative pronoun ᾧ.  Grammatically, it could be either “death” in the previous clause, or more remotely, it could be “one person” in the earlier phrase.  Or it could be a general relative pronoun alluding to the entire earlier discussion.  In this case, we could translate “on the basis of which” or “in that” indicating cause (which most translations adopt), or “in addition to which,” suggesting that universal sinfulness is an “add-on” to death spreading to all.  Or it may mean, as I have rendered, that universal sinfulness is the result of death spreading to all.  This is the closest antecedent to the relative pronoun.  But the grammar is probably too complex to settle the matter by itself, and I’m not terribly confident of this translation.

[B] An accounting term—might be be rendered here “counted.”

[C] So even when sin does not “count,” death still reigns.

[D] In light of the previous verse, we should probably assume that “after the likeness of the transgression of Adam” means “in disobedience to an explicit command” (i.e., a violation of “law”) or something similar.

[E] Literally, “but not as the transgression, so also the gift.”

[F] Dative of means.

[G] Note the parallel uses of ἐκ in this verse, though as I have translated, I think there is a shift in nuance in the two uses.  But the Greek is more fully parallel than an English translation can render here.  Literally, the phrases are rendered, “the judgment from one into condemnation, and the gift, from many transgressions, into righteousness.”

[H] Note that the genitive cases require a “double abundance”—an abundance of grace and of [the] gift of righteousness.

[I] I’ve tried to preserve Paul’s highly elliptical speech here in my translation.

[J] Paul probably switched to “the many” in this verse to avoid the potentially universalistic interpretation of εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους in the previous verse.  In both verses, however, there remains some tension, since in this verse, the use of “the many” makes the universality of human sinfulness more problematic (why not “all?”), whereas in the previous verse, the use of “to all people” seems to suggest a soteriological universalism, something we don’t find elsewhere in Paul.  Paul is juggling a lot of things at once here!